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2008-12-20 05:54:21

 
医院的一些单词 送给学护士的姐妹们 [引用]
病人身份[Identification]
• [Name] 姓名
• [Sex] 性别
• [Age] 年龄
• [Occupation] 职业
• [Date of birth] 出生日期
• [Marriage (Marital status)] 婚姻
• [Race] 民族
• [Place of birth (Birth place)] 籍贯
• [Identification No.(code of ID card No.)] 身份证号码
• [Department of work and TEL. No. (Unit and Business phone No.)] 工作
单位及电话
• [Home address and phone No.] 家庭住址及电话
• [Post code] 邮政编码
• [Person to notify (Correspondent) and phone No.] 联系人及电话
• [Source (Complainer;offerer;supplier;provider) of history] 病史陈术者
• [Reliability of history] 病史可靠程试
• [Medical security (Type of payment)] 医疗费用
• [Type of admission (Patient condition)] 住院类别(入院时病情)
• [Medical record No.] 病历号
• [Clinic diagnosis] 门诊诊断
• [Date of admission (admission date)] 入院日期
• [Date of record] 记录日期
1、年龄的表示方法(以36岁为例)
•36 years old (y/o)
•Age 36
•36 year-old
•The age of 36
•36 years of age
2、性别的表示方法
• [Male,♂] 男性
• [Female,♀] 女性
3、职业的表示方法
•工人[Worker]
•退休工作[Retired worker]
•农民[Farmer (peasant)]
•干部[Leader (cadre)]
•行政人员[administrative personnel (staff)]
•职员[staff member]
•商人[Trader (Businessman)]
•教师[Teacher]
•学生[Student]
•医生[Doctor]
•药剂师[Pharmacist]
•护士[Nurse]
•军人[Soldier]
•警察[Policeman]
•工程师[Engineer]
•技术员[Technician]
•家政人员[Housekeeper]
•家庭主妇[Housewife]
•营业员[Assistant]
•服务员[Attendant]
•售票员[Conductor]
4、民族的表示方法
•汉[Han]
•回[Hui]
•蒙[Meng]
•藏[Tibetan]
•朝鲜[Korean]
•美国人[American]
•日本人[Japanese]
•英国人[Britisher]
5、医疗费用的表示方法
• [Self pay (Individual medical care)] 自费
• [Government insruance (Public medical care)] 公费
• [Insurance] 保险
• [Local insurance] 本地医保
• [Non-local in surance] 外地医保
• [Labor protestion care] 劳保
6、婚姻状况的表示方法
• [Married] 已婚
• [Single (Unmarried)] 未婚
• [Diverced] 离婚
• [Widow] 寡妇
• [Widower] 鳏夫
7、病史可靠程度的表示方法
• [Reliable] 可靠
• [Unreliable] 不可靠
• [Not entirely] 不完全可靠
• [Unobtainable] 无法获得
8、住址的表示方法
•[NO.3,Qing Chun Road East,Hangzhou, Zhejiang] 浙江省杭州市庆春东路3号
•[XinDong Cun, Cheng Guan Town, Zhu Ji municipality, zhejiang province
.] 浙江省诸暨市(县)城关镇新东村
9、病史陈述者的表示方法
• [Patient himself (herself)] 患者本人
• [Her husband] 患者的丈夫
• [His wife] 患者的妻子
• [Patient`s colleague] 患者的同事
• [Patient`s neighbor] 患者的邻居
• [Patient`s Kin (Mother; Son; daughter;brother;Sister)] 患者的亲属(父
亲、母亲、儿子、女儿、兄弟、姐妹)
• [Taximan] 出租车司机
• [Traffic police] 交通警察
10、日期的表示方法
•2002年10月1日[10-1-2002(10/1/2002; Oct.1,2002; Oct.lst,2002)](美国)
•2002年10月1日[1-10-2002(1/10/2002; 1 Oct.,2002; 1st of Oct.,2002)] (
英国)
11、住院类别的表示方法
• [Emergent (Emergency call)] 急诊
• [Urgent] 危重
• [Elective (General)] 一般(普通)
12、入院时病情的表示方法
• [Stable] 稳定
• [Unstable] 不稳定
• [Relative stable] 相对稳定
• [Critical (Imminent)] 危重
• [Fair (General)] 一般


第二章 主诉[Chief Complaint]

1、主诉的表示方法:症状+时间(Symptom+Time)
•症状+for+时间
如: [Chest pain for 2 hours] 胸痛2小时
•症状+of+时间
如: [Nausea and vomiting of three days` duration] 恶心呕吐3天
•症状+时间+in duration
如: [Headache 1 month in duration] 头痛1月
•时间+of+症状
如: [Two-day history of fever] 发热2天
2、常见症状
• [Fever] 发热
• [Pain] 疼痛
• [Edema] 水肿
• [Mucocutaneous hemorrhage (bleeding)] 皮肤粘膜出血
• [Dyspnea (Difficuly in breathing;Respiratory difficulty;short of
breath)] 呼吸困难
• [Cough and expectoration (Sputum;Phlegm)] 咳嗽和咯痰
• [Hemoptysis] 咯血
• [Cyanosis] 紫绀
• [Palpitation] 心悸
• [Chest discomfort] 胸闷
• [Nausea (Retch;Dry Vomiting)and Vomiting] 恶心和呕吐
• [Hematemesis (Vomiting of blood)] 呕血
• [Hematochezia (Hemafecia)] 便血
• [Diarrhea] 腹泻
• [Constipation (Obstipation)] 便秘
• [Vertigo (Giddiness; Dizziness)] 眩晕
• [Jaundice (Icterus)] 黄疸
• [Convulsion] 惊厥
• [Disturbance of consciousness] 意识障碍
• [Hematuria] 血尿
• [Frequent micturition,urgent micturition and dysuria] 尿频,尿急和尿痛
• [Incontinence of urine] 尿失禁
• [Retention of urine] 尿潴留
(1)发热的表示方法
• [Infective (Septic)fever] 感染性发热
• [Non-infective (Aseptic)fever] 非感染性发热
• [Dehydration (Inanition)fever] 脱水热
• [Drug fever] 药物热
• [Functional hypothermia] 功能性低热
• [Absorption fever] 吸收热
• [Central fever] 中枢性发热
• [Fever type] 热型
▲ [Continuous fever] 稽留热
▲ [Remittent fever] 驰张热
▲ [Intermittent fever] 间歇热
▲ [Undulant fever] 波状热
▲ [Recurrent fever] 回归热
▲ [Periodic fever] 周期热
▲ [Irregular fever] 不规则热
▲ [Ephemeral fever] 短暂热
▲ [Double peaked fever] 双峰热
• [Fever of undetermined(unknown) origin, FUO] 不明原因发热
• [Rigor (shivering;chill;shaking chill;ague)] 寒战
• [Chilly Sensation (Fell chilly;cold fits;coldness)] 畏寒
• [Ultra-hyperpyrexia] 超高热
• [Hyperthermia (A high fever;hyperpyrexia;ardent fever)] 高热
• [Moderate fever] 中度发热
• [Hypothermia (Low-grade fever;slight fever;subfebrile temperature)]
低热
• [Become feverish (Have a temperature)] 发热
• [Crisis] 骤降
• [Lysis] 渐降
• [Typhoid fever] 伤寒热
• [Rheumatic fever] 风湿热
• [Cancerous fever] 癌性发热
• [Fervescence period] 升热期
• [Defervescence period] 退热期
• [Persistent febrile period] 持续发热期
(2)疼痛的表示方法
• [Backache (Back pain)] 背痛
• [Lumbago] 腰痛
• [Headache] 头痛
▲ [Vasomotor headache] 血管舒缩性头痛
▲[Post-traumatic headache] 创伤后头痛
▲[Migraine headache] 偏头痛
▲ [Cluster headache] 丛集性头痛
• [Chest pain] 胸痛
• [Precardial pain] 心前区痛
• [Retrosternal pain] 胸骨后痛
• [Abdominal pain (Stomachache)] 腹痛
• [Acrodynia (pain in limbs)] 肢体痛
• [Arthrodynia (Arthralgia)] 关节痛
• [Dull pain] 钝痛
• [Sharp pain] 锐痛
• [Twinge pain] 刺痛
• [Knife-like pain (Piercing pain)] 刀割(刺)样痛
• [Aching pain] 酸痛
• [Burning pain] 烧灼痛
• [Colicky (Griping;cramp) pain] 绞痛
• [Colic] 绞痛
• [Bursting pain] 胀痛(撕裂痛)
• [Hunger pain] 饥饿痛
• [Tic pain] 抽搐痛
• [Bearing-down pain] 坠痛
• [Shock-like pain] 电击样痛
• [Jumping pain] 反跳痛
• [Tenderness pain] 触痛(压痛)
• [Girdle-like pain] 束带样痛
• [Wandering pain] 游走性痛
• [Throbbing pain] 搏动性痛
• [Radiating pain] 放射性痛
• [Cramping pain] 痉挛性痛
• [Boring pain] 钻痛
• [Intense pain] 剧痛
• [Writhing pain] 痛得打滚
• [Dragging pain] 牵引痛
• [Labor pain] 阵痛
• [Cancerous pain] 癌性疼痛
• [Referred pain] 牵涉痛
• [Persistent pain (Unremitting pain)] 持续性痛
• [Constant pain] 经常性痛
• [Intermittent pain] 间歇性痛
(3)水肿的表示方法
• [Mucous edema (Myxedema)] 粘液性水肿
• [Cardiac (Cardiogenic) edema] 心源性水肿
• [Nephrotic (renal) edema] 肾源性水肿
• [Hepatic edema] 肝源性水肿
• [Alimentary (Nutritional) edema] 营养不良性水肿
• [Angioneurotic edema] 血管神经性水肿
• [Pitting] 凹陷性
• [Nonpitting] 非凹陷性
• [Localized (Local) edema] 局限性水肿
• [Generalized edema (Anasarca)] 全身性水肿
• [Hydrops] 积水
• [Elephantiasic crus] 橡皮肿
• [Cerebral(Brain) edema] 脑水肿
• [Pulmonary edema (Hydropneumonia0] 肺水肿
• [Hydrocephalus] 脑积水
• [Edema of endoscrinopathy] 内分泌病性水肿
• [Invisible (Recessive) edema] 隐性水肿
• [Frank edema] 显性水肿
• [Inflammatory edema] 炎性水肿
• [Idiopathic edema] 特发性水肿
• [Cyclical edema] 周期性水肿
• [Ascites (Abdominal effusion;hydroperiotoneum)] 腹水
• [Pleural effusion (Hydrothorax)] 胸水
• [Pericardial effusion (Hydropericardium)] 心包积液
• [Bronchoedema] 支气管水肿
• [Slight (Mild)] 轻度
• [Moderate] 中度
• [Serious] 重度
• [Transudate] 漏出液
• [Exudate] 渗出液
(4)呼吸困难的表示方法
• [Cardiac dyspnea] 心原性呼吸困难
• [Inspiratory] 吸气性
• [Expiratory] 呼气性
• [Mixed] 混合性
• [Obstructive] 梗阻性
• [Dyspnea at rest] 静息时呼吸困难
• [Dyspnea on exertion] 活动时呼吸困难
• [Dyspnea on lying down] 躺下时呼吸困难
• [Paromal nocturnal dyspnea,PND] 夜间阵发性呼吸困难
• [Orthopnea] 端坐呼吸
• [Asthma] 哮喘
• [Cardiac asthma] 心源性哮喘

• [Bronchial asthma] 支气管性哮喘
• [Hyperpnea] 呼吸深快
• [Periodic breathing] 周期性呼吸
• [Tachypnea (Rapid or fast breathing;accelerated breathing;short of
breath)]气促
• [Bradypnea (Slow breathing)] 呼吸缓慢
• [Irregular breathing] 不规则呼吸
(5)皮肤粘膜出血的表示方法
• [Bleeding spots in the skin] 皮肤出血点
• [Petechia] 瘀点
• [Eccymosis] 瘀斑
• [Purpura] 紫癜
• [Splinter hemorrhage] 片状出血
• [Oozing of the blood (Errhysis)] 渗血
• [Blood blister (Hemophysallis)] 血疱
• [Hemorrhinia (Nasal bleeding)] 鼻衄
• [Ecchymoma] 皮下血肿
(6)咳嗽与咯痰的表示方法
• [Dry cough (Nonproductive cough;hacking cough)] 干咳
• [Sharp cough] 剧咳
• [Wet cough (Moist cough)] 湿咳
• [Productive cough (Loose cough)] 排痰性咳
• [Chronic cough] 慢性咳嗽
• [Irritable cough] 刺激性咳嗽
• [Paromal cough] 发作性(阵发性)咳嗽
• [Cough continually] 持续性咳嗽
• [Spasmodic cough] 痉挛性咳嗽
• [Whooping cough] 百日咳
• [Winter cough] 冬季咳
• [Wheezing cough] 喘咳
• [Short cough] 短咳
• [Distressed cough] 难咳
• [Shallow cough] 浅咳
• [Droplet] 飞沫
• [Frothy sputum] 泡沫样痰
• [Bloody sputum] 血痰
• [Mucous (Mucoid) sputum] 粘液样痰
• [Purulent sputum] 脓痰
• [Mucopurulent sputum] 粘液脓性痰
• [White (Yellow,green) sputum] 白(黄,绿)痰
• [Fetid (Foul) sputum] 恶臭痰
• [Iron-rust (Rusty) sputum] 铁锈色痰
• [Chocolate coloured sputum] 巧克力色痰
• [Thick sputum] 浓痰
• [Thin sputum] 淡痰
• [Viscous sputum] 粘痰
• [Transparent sputum] 透明痰
• [Much (Large amounts of) sputum] 大量痰
• [Moderate amounts of sputum] 中等量痰
• [Not much (Small amounts of ) sputum] 少量痰
(7)内脏出血的表示方法
• [Goldstein’s hemoptysis]戈耳斯坦氏咯血
• [Massive hematemesis]大量呕血
• [Epistasis (Nosebleed;Nasal bleeding; Hemorrhinia;rhinorrhagia)]鼻衄
• [Hematuria] 血尿
• [Initial hematuria] 初血尿
• [Idiopathic hematuria] 特发性血尿
• [Painless hematuria] 无痛性血尿
• [Terminal hematuria] 终末性血尿
• [Gross (Macroscopic) hematuria] 肉眼血尿
• [Microscopic hematuria] 镜下血尿
• [Hematuria in the whole process of urination] 全程血尿
• [Gingival bleeding (Ulaemorrhagia;gum bleeding)] 牙龈出血
• [Hematochezia] 便血
• [Bloody stool] 血便
• [Black stool (Melena)] 黑便
• [Tarry stool] 柏油样便
• [Bleeding following trauma] 外伤后出血
• [Spontaneous bleeding] 自发性出血
• [Bleeding Continuously] 持续出血
• [Occult blood,OB] 隐血
• [Hematobilia] 胆道出血
• [Hemathorax] 血胸
• [Hemarthrosis] 关节积血
• [Hematocoelia] 腹腔积血
• [Hematoma] 血肿
• [Hemopericardium] 心包积血
• [Cerebral hemorrhage] 脑出血
• [Subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)] 蛛网膜下腔出血
• [Excessive (Heavy) menstrual flow with passage of clots] 月经量多伴
血块
• [Mild (Moderate) menses] 月经量少(中等)
• [Painless Vaginal bleeding] 无痛性阴道出血
• [Postcoital bleeding] 性交后出血
• [Pulsating bleeding] 搏动性出血
• [Post-operation wound hemorrhage] 术后伤口出血
• [Excessive bleeding after denal extraction] 拔牙后出血过多
(8)紫绀的表示方法
• [Congenital cyanosis] 先天性紫绀
• [Enterogenous] 肠源性
• [Central] 中枢性
• [Peripheral] 周围性
• [Mixed] 混合性
• [Acrocyanosis] 指端紫绀
(9)恶心与呕吐的表示方法
• [Vomiturition (Retching)] 干呕
• [Feel nauseated] 恶心感
• [Postprandial nausea] 饭后恶心
• [Hiccup] 呃逆
• [Sour regurgitation] 返酸
• [Fecal (Stercoraceous) vomiting] 吐粪
• [undigested food Vomiting] 吐不消化食物
• [Bilious Vomiting] 吐胆汁
(10)腹泻与便秘的表示方法
• [Moning diarrhea] 晨泻
• [Watery (Liquid)diarrhea] 水泻
• [Mucous diarrhea] 粘液泻
• [Fatty diarrhea] 脂肪泻
• [Chronic (Acute)] 慢性(急性)
• [Mild diarrhea] 轻度腹泻
• [Intractable (Uncontrolled)diarrhea] 难治性腹泻
• [Protracted diarrhea] 迁延性腹泻
• [Bloody stool] 血梗
• [Frothy stool] 泡沫样便
• [Formless (Formed)stool] 不成形(成形)便
• [Loose (Hard) stool] 稀(硬)便
• [Rice-water stool] 米泔样便
• [Undigested stool] 不消化便
• [Dysenteric diarrhea] 痢疾样腹泻
• [Inflammatory diarrhea] 炎症性腹泻
• [Osmotic] 渗透性
• [Secretory] 分泌性
• [Malabsorption] 吸收不良性
• [Lienteric] 消化不良性
• [Pancreatic diarrhea] 胰性腹泻
• [Tenesmus] 里急后重
• [Pass a stool (Have a passage; open or relax the bowel)] 解大便
• [Have a call of nature] 便意
• [Fecal incontinence (Copracrasia)] 大便失禁
• [Functional constipation] 功能性便秘
• [Organic constipation] 器质性便秘
• [Habitual constipation] 习惯性便秘
• [Have a tendency to be constipated] 便秘倾向
(11)黄疸的表示方法
• [Latent (occult) jaundice] 隐性黄疸
• [Clinical jaundice] 显性黄疸
• [Nuclear icterus] 核黄疸
• [Physiologic icterus] 生理性黄疸
• [Icterus simplex] 传染性黄疸
• [Toxemic icterus] 中毒性黄疸
• [Hemolytic] 溶血性
• [Hepatocellular] 肝细胞性
• [Obstructive] 阻塞性
• [Congenital] 先天性
• [Familial] 家族性
• [Cholestatic] 胆汁淤积性
• [Hematogenous] 血源性
• [Malignant] 恶性
• [Painless] 无痛性
(12)意识障碍的表示方法
• [Somnolence] 嗜睡
• [Confusion] 意识模糊
• [Stupor] 昏睡
• [Coma] 昏迷
• [Delirium] 谵妄
• [Syncope (swoon; faint)] 晕厥
• [Drowsiness] 倦睡
(13)排尿的表示方法
• [Enuresis (Bed-wetting)] 遗尿
• [Anuria] 无尿
• [Emiction interruption] 排尿中断
• [Interruption of urinary stream] 尿线中断
• [Nocturia] 夜尿
• [Oliguria] 少尿
• [Polyuria] 多尿
• [Pass water (Make water; urinate; micturition)] 排尿
• [Frequent micturition (Frequency of micturition; fruquent urination;
Pollakiuria)] 尿频
• [Urgent micturition (Urgency of urination or micturition)] 尿急
• [Urodynia (Pain on micturition; painful micturition; alginuresis;
micturition pain)] 尿痛
• [Dysuria (Difficulty in micturition; disturbance of micturition)] 排
尿困难
• [Small urinary stream] 尿线细小
• [Void with a good stream] 排尿通畅
• [Guttate emiction (Dribbling following urination;terminal dribbling)
] 滴尿
• [Bifurcation of urination] 尿流分叉
• [Residual urine] 残余尿
• [Extravasation of urine] 尿外渗
• [Stress incontinence] 压力性尿失禁
• [Overflow incontinence] 溢出性尿失禁
• [Paradoxical in continence] 反常性尿失禁
3.少见症状
• [Weekness( Debility; asthenia; debilitating)] 虚弱(无力)
• [Fatigue (Tire; lassitude)] 疲乏
• [Discomfort (Indisposition; malaise)] 不适
• [Wasting (thin; underweight; emaciation; lean)] 消瘦
• [Night sweating] 盗汗
• [Sweat (Perspiration)] 出汗
• [Cold sweat] 冷汗
• [Pruritus (Iching)] 搔痒
• [Asthma] 气喘
• [Squeezing (Tightness; choking; pressing) sensation of the chest] 胸
部紧缩
(压榨)感
• [Intermittent claudication] 间歇性跛行
• [Difficulty in swallowing( Dysphagia; difficult swallowing;
acataposis)] 吞咽困难
• [Epigastric (Upper abdominal) discomfort] 上腹部不适
• [Anorexia (Sitophobia)] 厌食
• [Poor appetite (Loss of appetite)] 纳差
• [Heart-burn( Pyrosis)] 胃灼热
• [Stomachache( Pain in stomach)] 胃部痛
• [Periumbilial pain] 脐周痛
• [Belching (Eructation)] 嗳气
• [Sour regurgitation] 返酸
• [Abdominal distention(bloating)] 腹胀
• [Pass gas( Break wink)] 肛门排气
• [Small(Large) stool] 大便少(多)
• [Expel(Pass) worms] 排虫
• [Pain over the liver] 肝区痛
• [Lumbago] 腰痛
• [Pica(Parorexia; allotriophagy)] 异食癖
• [Dysmenorrhea] 痛经
• [Menoxenia (Irregular menstruation)] 月经不调
• [Polymenorrhea (Epimenorrhea)] 月经过频
• [Oligomenorrhea] 月经过少
• [Excessive menstruation (Menorrhagia; menometrorrhagia;
hypermenorrhea)] 经量过多
• [Hypomenorrhea (Scantymenstruation)] 经量过少
• [Menopause (Menostasia; menostasis)] 绝经
• [Amenorrhea (Menoschesis)] 闭经
• [Leukorrhagia] 白带过多
• [Asexuality (lack of libido)] 无性欲
• [Hyposexuality] 性欲低下
• [Hypersexuality] 性欲亢进
• [Prospermia (Ejaculatio praecox)] 早泄
• [Impotency (impotence)] 阳萎
• [Nocturnal emission (Spermatorrhea)] 遗精
• [Lack of potency] 无性交能力
• [Hair loss] 脱发
• [Joint pain (Arthralgia; arthrodynia)] 关节痛
• [Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)] 多饮(烦渴)
• [Polyphagia (Excessive appetite; hyperorexia; bulimia)] 多食
• [Cold (Heat) intolerance] 怕冷(热)
• [Dwarfism (Excessive height)] 身材矮小(高大)
• [Excessive sweating] 多汗
• [Hands tremble] 手抖
• [Obesity (Fatty)] 肥胖
• [Agitation (Anxiety;nervous irritability)] 焦虑(忧虑)
• [Mania] 躁狂
• [Hallucination] 幻觉
• [Aphasia (Logopathy)] 失语
• [Amnesia (Poor memorization;memory deterioration)] 记忆力下降
• [Hemianesthesia] 偏身麻木
• [Formication] 蚁走感
• [Tingling] 麻刺感
• [Hyperpathia] 痛觉过敏
• [Hypalgesia] 痛觉减退
• [Illusion] 错觉
• [Hemiplegia] 半身不遂
• [Insomnia (Poor sleepness;sleeplessness)] 失眠
• [Nightmare] 多梦
• [Numbness] 麻木
• [Pain in limbs (Acrodynia)] 肢体痛
• [Limitation of motion] 活动受限
• [Tetany] 手足抽搐
• [Discharge of pus] 流脓
• [Blurred vision(Hazy vision;blurring of vision; dimness of vision)]
视物模糊
• [Burning (Dry) sensation] 烧灼(干燥)感
• [Tearing (Dacryorrhea;Lacrimation)] 流泪
• [Double vision (Diplopia)] 复视
• [Strabismus] 斜视
• [Hemianopia] 偏盲
• [Tired eyes (Eyestrain)] 眼疲劳
• [Foreign body sensation] 异物感
• [Lose the sight (Lose of vision)] 失明
• [Diminution of vision] 视力减退
• [Nictition] 眨眼
• [Ophthalmodynia (Eye-ache;ocular pain)] 眼痛
• [Photophobia] 畏光
• [Spots before the eyes] 眼前黑点
• [Deafness(Anacusia)] 耳聋
• [Auditory dysesthesia] 听力减退
• [Otalgia (Otodynia;pain in the ear ;ear-ache)] 耳痛
• [Stuffy feeling in the ear] 耳闭气
• [Tinnitus] 耳鸣
• [Outophony] 自声过强
• [Nasal obstruction (blockage)] 鼻塞
• [Dryness of the nose] 鼻干燥
• [Rhinorrhea (Snivel;Nasal discharge)] 流鼻涕
• [Sneezing] 打喷嚏
• [Snoring] 打鼾
• [Hyposmia (Reduction of the sense of smell)] 嗅觉减退
• [Anosmia (Complete loss of sense of smell)] 嗅觉丧失
• [Dysphonia] 发音困难
• [Hoarseness] 声嘶
• [Pain on swallowing] 吞咽痛
• [Saliva dribblies from the mouth] 流涎
• [Troaty voice] 声音沙哑
• [Stridor] 喘鸣
• [Red and swollen] 红肿
• [Scurf] 头皮屑
• [Show] 见红
• [Amniotic fluid escaped] 破水
• [Uterine contraction] 宫缩
• [Acalculia] 计算不能
• [Apathy] 情感淡漠
• [Delusion] 妄想
4、时间的表示方法
(1)月(Month)
• [January,Jan.] 一月
• [February,Feb.] 二月
• [March,Mar.] 三月
• [April,Apr.] 四月
• [May] 五月
• [June,Jun.] 六月
• [July,Jul.] 七月
• [August,Aug.] 八月
• [September,Sept.] 九月
• [October,Oct.] 十月
• [November,Nov.] 十一月
• [December,Dec.] 十二月

(2)周(Week)
• [Monday] 星期一
• [Tuesday] 星期二
• [Wednesday] 星期三
• [Thursday] 星期四
• [Friday] 星期五
• [Saturday] 星期六
• [Sunday] 星期日

(3)年(Year)和日[Day]
• [1st (First) year] 第1年
• [2nd (Second) year] 第2年
• [3rd (Third)year] 第3年
• [4th (Forth) year] 第4年
• [One year (day)] 1年(天)
• [Two years (days)] 2年(天)
• [Whole year] 整年
• [1st (First)] 1日
• [2rd (Second)] 2日
• [3rd (Third)] 3日
• [5th (Fifth)] 5日
• [Today] 今天
•明天[Tomorrow]
•昨天[Yesterday]
•前天[The day bdfore yesterday]
•后天[The day after tomorrow]
•大前天[3 days ago]
•大后天[3 days hence]
•今晚[Tonight]
•昨晚[Last night]
•明晚[Next night]
•通宵[All night]
•整天[All day (the whole day)]
(4)季节[Season]和时节[Solar terms]
•春季[Spring]
•夏季[Summer]
•秋季[Autumn]
•冬季[Winter]
•立春(夏、秋、冬)[the Beginning of Spiring (Summer;Autumn;Winter)]
•小暑(雪、寒)[Slight Heat (Snow;Cold)]
•大暑(雪、寒)[Great Heat (Snow;Cold)]
•雨水[Rain Water]
•惊蛰[the Waking of Insects]
•春(秋)分[the Spiring (Autumnal) Equinox]
•清明[Pure Brightness]
•谷雨[Grain Rain]
•小满[Grain Full]
•芒种[Grain in Ear]
•夏(冬至)[the Summer (Winter) Solstice]
•处暑[the Limit of Heat]
•白(寒)露[White (Cold) Dew]
•霜降[Frost’s Descent]
(5)时间的表示方法
•In[在……内(后)]
▲在2003年[In 2003]
▲在3月[In March(Mar.)]
▲在去年10月[In last Oct.]
▲在早晨[In the morning]
▲在上午[In the forenoon]
▲在下午[In the afternoon]
▲在晚上[In the evening]
▲在近5天[In the past 5 days]
▲在10分钟后[In 10 minutes]
▲在秋季[In autumn]
▲在这2~3天内[In a couple of days]
•Within[在……中]
▲在近8个月中[Within the last 8 months]
▲在过去的2年中[Within the preceding 2 years]
•On[在……时候]
▲在2002的9月18日[On the 18th of September,2002(英国)or On sept.18th,
2002(美国)
▲在星期三[On Wednesday]
▲在本月7日[On 7th instant]
•At[在……时]
▲在中午[At noon]
▲在晚上[At night]
▲在昨晚[At last (preceding;previous )night]
▲在半夜[At midnight]
▲在上午10点钟[At 10AM]
▲在5岁时[At the age of five]
▲在2000年底(中、初)[At the end (middle;beginning) of 2000]
•For[计……时间]
▲一周[For one week]
▲近2个月来[For the past 2 months]
▲几乎(整整)一年[For nearly a month (a full month)]
▲3个月左右[For 3 months or so]
▲至少3个月[For at least 3 months]
▲3个月以上[For more than 3 months]
▲3个月或以上[For 3months or more]
▲时间不详[For an unknown(indefinite) period (time)]
•Of[在……时期]
▲10年内[Of 10 years` duration]
▲期间[Length of time]
▲6月6日[The 6th of June]
•Dring[在……期间]
▲在2000-2005年的几年中[During the years form 2000 to 2005]
▲在这4年中[During four years]
▲在过去的几周中[During the past(Last) couple of weeks]
▲在夜间[During the night]
▲整天[During the entire day]
•About [约]
▲约1个半小时[About one and half an hour]
▲大约半年[About half a year]
•To[至;在……之前]
▲从今下午点至明上午8点[Form 6 PM today to 8 AM tomorrow]
▲6点45分[At fifteen to seven]
•From[从……起]
▲从14岁至52岁[From 14 to 52 year-old]
▲从上午7点30分开始[Form 7:30AM]
▲从周一至周五[From Monday through Friday]
•Past[过去;超过]
▲在过去的3周中[In the past 3 weeks]
▲8点10分[ten minutes past eight]
•Through or throughout[在……整个期间]
▲通宵值班[Be on duty through the night]
▲从一月到六月[From January through June]
▲熬过明晚[Through the next nigut]
▲整天(晚)[Throughout the day (night)]
•Over[在……期间]
▲在过去的2个月内[Over the past two months]
▲一夜间[Overnight]
(6)其他表示方法
•每月(年、日)一次[Monthly (Yearly; daily)]
•整整一年[Yearlong (Year-round)]
•满周岁[Yearling]
•工作日[Weekday]
•周末[Weekend]
•每周末[Weekends]
•8小时工作日[An eight-hour day]
•整天[Daylong]
•白天[Daytime]
•昼夜[Nighttime]
•日常的[Day-to-day]
•夏令时间[Daylight saving time]
•每晚[Nightly]
•黄昏[Nighfall]
•过期的[Overdue]
•前天晚上(一夜间)[Overnight]
•After [在……之后]
▲婚后[After one`s marriage]
▲ 七点十分[Ten after (past) seven]
▲ 住(出)院后[After admission (discharge)]
▲ 起病后2天[2 days after the onset(attack) of symptoms]
•Before[在……之前]
▲ 7点50分之前[Before seven fifty]
▲ 医生到达前[Before the doctor come]
▲ 以前未有种症状[Have had not the same symptom before]
•Ago[以前]
▲ 5年前[5 years ago]
▲ 直到一个月前[Up to one month ago]
▲ 大前天[Three days ago]
•Prior to[在……之前]
▲ 入(出)院前[Prior to admission (discharge)]
▲ 前天之前[Prior to the day before yesterday]
•Up to[直到]
▲ 直到3周前[Up to 3 weeks ago]
▲ 直到现在(出院)[Up to now (discharge)]
•Until or till[直到]
▲ 直到80岁[Until 80 years old]
▲ 直到今晨8点[Until 8 o`clock this moning]
▲ 直到医生查完房[Until the doctor have finished the ward round]
▲ 直到3年以前[Until 3 years ago]
▲ 直到出院前一天[Until 1 day prior to discharge]
•By[在……之前]
▲ 下午点钟前[By 5 PM]
▲ 下个月之前[By next month]
•Since[从……开始]
▲ 自从去年术后[Since operation was performed last year]
▲ 前天起[Since the day before yesterday]
▲ 从2002年6月起[Since June 2002]
•超时(加班)[Overtime]
•上午8点[8:00AM]
•下午2点30分[2:30PM]
•7点50分[Seven fifty (Ten to eight)]
•9点20分[Nine twenty(Twenty past or after nine)]
•术前[Pre-operation]
•术后[Post-operation]

第三章 现病史[History of present illness (HPI/PI)]

现病史书写的重点包括:
一、主诉中症状的详细描述;
二、疾病的发展过程;
三、诊疗经过;
四、目前的一般情况。
1、诱因
•无诱因下[With no inducing factors]
•无明显诱因下[Under no obvious predisposing causes]
•感冒一周后[After getting (catching) common cold for 1 week]
2、症状出现的叙述
•有……症状
▲suffer from
▲ have an attack of
▲ have(fell)
▲ begin to fell
▲ a feeling (sensation) of……
▲ complain (of)
▲ ……sensation (feeling) in (of) ……
▲ [发热]have a temperature (become feverish)
•在……情况下发生
▲ 活动时呼吸困难[dyspnea on exertion]
▲ 躺下后即出现咳嗽[Cough occurs soon after lying]
•与……有(无)关
▲ 与……有关[be associated with]
▲ 与……有关[have (make) relation to]
▲ 与……无关[have (make)no relation to]
•在……情况下加重(减轻)
▲ 餐后加重[become worse after taking meals]
▲ 站立后缓解[be relieved by standing up]
▲ 随呼吸和咳嗽而加重[become more severe with breathing and cough]
•伴有……
▲ be accompanied by

3、起病方式
•急性腹痛[acute abdominal pain]
•慢性低热[chronic lower fever]
•暴发性发病[the onset was fulminating]
•骤起胸痛[an explosive onset of chest pain]
•突然起病伴高热[the onset was sudden with high fever]
•突发突止[attacks began and ended abruptly]
•因……而突然起病[the attack is precipitated by……]
•很快发生晕厥[syncope occured rapidly]
•逐渐出现咳嗽咳痰[gradual onset of cough and sputum]
•偶而[occasionally (sporadically, accidentally)]
•反复胸闷心悸[recurrent (bouts of) chest discomfort and palpitation]
•一过性发作[transitory attack]
•连续胸痛[chest pain continually]
•时重时轻[waned and waxed]
•时好时坏[hang in the balance]
•不停地咳嗽[have a fit of cough]
•发作性呼吸困难[paromal short of breath]
•频繁咳嗽[cough frequently (very often)]
•持续性(间歇性)[persistent (intermittent)]
•频发胸痛[frequent episodes of chest pain]
•持续不变[be steady]
4、病情变化描述
•[症状好转] ▲fell better than before
▲take a favorable turn
▲take a turn for the better
▲improve
▲make favorable progress
▲turn for the better
▲change for the better
▲be better
•[症状减轻] ▲alleviate
▲reduce
▲palliate
▲diminish
▲ease(lighten)
▲mitigate
•[症状消失] ▲disappear
▲subside
▲regress
▲clear up
▲vanish
▲dissolve
▲die (fade) away
▲relieve
•[症状加重] ▲be (make,become,get) worse
▲worsen
▲become more severe
▲take a turn for the worse
▲be aggravated
▲increase in severity
▲take a bad turn
▲make (become) more serious
▲make (become) heavier
•[无变化] ▲remain the same as……
▲continue without change
▲be identical
▲be alike
▲be similar
▲resemble
•[时好时坏] ▲wane and wax
▲hang in the balance
•[体温/血压升降]
▲ 升至[rise (go up) to ]
▲ 已升至[have risen (gone up) to ]
▲ 从……升至……[go up from …… to……]
▲ 升至[be elevated to]
▲ 迅速下降[fall (decline, abate) abruptly]
▲ 骤降(升)[sudden drop (elevation)]
▲ 渐降(升)[fall (elevate) gradually]
▲ 缓慢下降[slow crisis (lysis) of ]
▲ 一天天下降[be (become) lower day by day]
▲ 开始降低[begin to remit]
▲ 降至正常[drop (was reduced) to normal]
▲ 已降至[have gone down (dropped) to]
▲ 回复到正常[return (revert) to normal]
▲ 由……降(升)至……[fall (elevate) from……to……]
▲ 维持在……水平[maintain at a level of……]
▲ 稳定在……[stabilize at……]
▲ 热退了[fever disappeared]
▲ 不超过[do not go up over (exceed)……]
▲ 在……和……之间波动[fluctuate (vary) between……
and……]
▲ 在……至……范围内[range from……to……]
▲ 平均38.5℃[an average temperature of 38.5℃]
▲ 有39.2℃的体温[have fever (a temperature) of 39.2℃]
5、症状的时间表示
•持续 ▲lasted for 2 days
▲have gone on for 1 month
▲have continued for 10 hours
▲lasted on the average 3-5 hours
▲lasted a variable time from 5 minutes to several hours
▲lasted about half an hour
•超过(不到)[move than (less than)]
•……以前[two years ago]
•多在……时发生[usually between 3 and 5 PM]
•未发作过[be free of onsets (attacks) for 2 weeks]
6、症状的严重程度
•轻度[mild (slight)]
•中度[moderate]
•重度[severe (serious)]
7、症状的其他描述方法
•[部位] ▲be located (situated) in (over)[位于]
▲There is localized pain in……[疼痛位于]
▲near……[在……附近]
▲be localized to (in, over)[局限于]
▲be limited (confined) to[局限于]
•[表示部位的介词]
▲心尖部,表示小的部位或点[at the apex]
▲上腹部,表示大的部位[in the upper abdomen]
▲在左下肢,表示皮肤表面上(下)的病变[on (beneath) the
left lower limb]
▲在右肺,表示正上方的相应体表部位[over the right lung]
▲嘴上(下)方,表示高低或上下的位置关系[above (below)
the mouth]
▲左乳皮下[under the skin of the left breast]
•[转移/放射]
▲转移到……[shift (migrate) to……]
▲放射到……[radiate (travel,go,refer)to……]
▲从……放射到……[radiate from……to……]
•[耳鼻咽喉及口腔症状]
▲耳痛[otalgia (pain of ears)]
▲耳鸣[tinnitus (ears ring)]
▲耳鸣[a buzzing (ringing,singing) in the ears]
▲左耳有耳鸣感[a buzzing sensation in the left ear]
▲耳聋[deafness (loss in hearing)]
▲左耳聋[be deaf of the left ear]
▲耳流脓[otorrhea (otopyorrhea)]
▲耳出血[otorrhagia]
▲耳垢[cerumen (earwax)]
▲耳血肿[othematoma]
▲鼻塞[nasal obstruction]
▲不能用鼻呼吸[be unable to breathe through (by) the nose
(nasal dyspnea)]
▲打喷涕和流涕[sneezing and nasal discharge]
▲水样鼻涕[watery rhinorrhea]
▲鼻出血[nosebleed]
▲咽喉痛[sore throat]
▲口吃[stuttering]
▲口臭[ozostomia (saburra,halitosis)]
▲张口困难[difficult (inability) to open the mouth]
▲张口(吞咽、嚼)困难[difficult in opening the mouth
(swallowing,masticating)]
▲咽下困难[dysphagia]
▲流涎多[have excessive salvation]
•[眼科及牙科症状]
▲眼睑浮肿[eyelid edema]
▲眼痛[pain in the eyes]
▲视边模糊[blurring of vision (blurred vision)]
▲过度流泪[excessive tearing (watering)]
▲视疲劳[asthenopia (visional tired)]
▲视力减退[hypopsia (diminution of vision)]
▲视力衰弱[ophthalmocopia]
▲远(近)视力模糊[indistinct distant (near) vision]
▲失明[loss of vision]
▲搏动性牙痛[throbbing pain of tooth (odontalgia)]
▲牙龈出血[gingival bleeding]
▲牙龈萎缩(增生)[gingival atrophy(hypertrophy)]
▲牙周溢脓[peripyema]
•[妇产科症状]
▲月经过多[excessive menstrual flow (menorrhagia)]
▲月经多并伴血块[experience menorrhagia with passage of
clots]
▲经量少(中等、多)[mild (moderate,heavy) menses]
▲月经过少[hypomenorrhea]
▲阴道出血[vaginal bleeding(colporrhagia)]
▲阴道大出血[massive (profuse) vaginal bleeding]
▲无痛性(性交后)阴道出血[painless(postcoital) vaginal
bleeding]
▲阴道干燥[colpoxerosis]
▲月经规则(不规则)[rugular (irregular) menstrual cycle]
▲月经周期26天,持续4天[menstrual periods of 26 days and
lasted 4 days]
▲白带增多[leukorrhagia (profuse leukorrhea or whites)]
▲外阴搔痒[pruritus of vulva]
▲外阴湿疹(白斑)[eczema (leukoplakia) of vulva]
▲绝经[amenorrhea]
▲停经[menopause]
▲停经3年[3 years post menopausal]
▲50岁停经[Passed menopause at age 50]
▲经前(期)痛[pain before (during) the flow]
▲预产期[expected date of confinement]
▲见红和破水[show and amniotic fluid escaped (rupture of
membranes)]
▲羊水过多(少)[polyhydramnios (oligohydramnios)]
▲月经期水肿[menstrual edema]
▲月经失调[menstrual disorder]
▲性欲正常(减退)[normal(decreased) libido]
▲无性欲[loss of libido]
▲性功能障碍[sexual disorder]
▲性变态[paraphilia]
▲性要求高(低)[be oversexed(undersexed)]
▲性感不快[dypareunia]
▲性欲亢进(减退)[hypersexuality (hyposexuality)]
▲产程[stage of labor]
▲产程延长[prolonged labor]
▲产道裂伤(损伤)[laceration (injury) of birth canal]
▲产后腹痛(出血,尿潴留,子痫)[postpartum tormina
(hemorrhage,retention of urine, eclampsia)]
▲产前出血[antepartum hemorrhage]
▲产前子痫[prenatal eclampsia]
▲产前检查[prenatal examination]
▲产褥热[puerperal fever]
▲产褥期护理[pureperal care]
▲妊娠呕吐[vomiting of pregnancy (hyperemesis gravidarum)]
▲妊娠反应[pregnancy reaction]
▲妊娠高血压(水肿)[gestation hypertension (edema)]
•[病程中的一般情况]
▲一般情况尚可(一般、差)[general condition is fair (ordinary, bad)]
▲胃纳佳(差)[have a good (poor) appetite]
▲过度进食[eat too much (overeat, eat heavily)]
▲过少进食[eat poorly (take little food)]
▲无食欲[have no appetite]
▲食欲减退[appetite decreases]
▲口渴[feel thirsty]
▲大量饮水[drink water generously]
▲体重增加[gain in weight]
▲体重增加8公斤[a 8 kilograms weight gain (gain 8 kilograms)]
▲体重减轻[loss of weight (weight loss)]
▲体重稳定不变[body weight is stable (unchanged, maintained)]
▲睡眠障碍[somnipathy]
▲睡眠不足[lack (want) of sleep]
▲不易入睡[have trouble getting to sleep]
▲容易入睡[fall into a sleep very easily]
▲睡眠过度[hypersomnia]
▲睡行症[sleep walking]
▲嗜(贪)睡[somnolence (be fond of sleep)]
▲夜晚因……而易醒[easily wakened at night because of……]
▲失眠[have insomnia]
▲睡眠差(好)[sleep is poor (good)]
▲消化不良[dyspepsia (have bad digestion)]
▲大(小)便通畅[stool (urination) is easy and smooth(unobstructed,
clear)]
▲每日2次大便[have two stools daily]
▲含粘液的水样便[watery stools coutaining mucus]
▲便秘(腹泻)[constipation (diarrhea)]
▲排尿困难[difficulty in micturition]
▲尿频(急)[frequency(urgency) of micturition]
▲尿痛[micturition pain]
▲少尿(无尿、多尿)[oliguria (anuria, polyuria)]
▲大便失禁[fecal incontinence]
▲小便失禁[incontinence of urine]
▲精神不振[lassitude]
▲精神紧张(抑郁)[mental stress (depression)]
▲精神混乱[confusion]
▲精神失常[amentia (mental state is bad)]
▲精神状态正常[orthophrenia (mental state is good)]
▲体力旺盛(不足,正常)[hypersthenia (hyposthenia, euthesia)]







第四章 过去史、系统回顾和个人史
(Past history, systems review and personal history)
1、过去史[past history]
•无药物(食物)过敏史[no past history of allergy to drugs (food )]
•有青霉素过敏史[have allergic history of pencillin]
•有肺结核接触史[there was contact histoy of lung tuberculosis]
•2000年6月因急性阑尾切除术[Appendectomy was done in June, 2000 due to
acute appendicitis]
•健康状况佳(差)[health state was good (bad)]
•既往体健[be well (healthy) before]
•否认既往心、肺疾病史[deny any history of prior heart and lung disease]
•10岁时(20年前)曾患过……[suffered from…… at age 10(20 years ago)]
•易患……[be liable (subjuct, apt) to……]
•不详[not in detail (not quite clear)]
•外伤史[rtauma history]
•预防接种史[history of preventive inoculation]
2、系统回顾[system review]
•呼吸系统:咳嗽、咳痰、呼吸困难、胸痛、盗汗、发热[respiratory system:
cough, sputum, short of breath, chest pain, night sweeting, fever.]
•循环系统:心悸、胸痛、气促、咳嗽和咯血、水肿、晕厥、头晕[Circulatory
system: palpitation, chest pain, short of breath, cough and hemoptysis,
edema, syncope, dizziness.]
•消化系统:嗳气、返酸、腹胀、腹痛、腹泻、恶心和呕吐[alimentary system:
belching, sour regurgitation, abdominal distension, abd. pain, diarrhea,
nausea and vomiting.]
•泌尿系统:排尿困难、尿频和尿急、尿痛、腹痛、水肿[urinary system:
difficulty in micturition, frequency and rugency of micturition, painful
micturition, abdominal pain, edema.]
•造血系统:乏力、头晕、心悸、出血[hematopoietic system:fatigue,
dizziness, palpitation, bleeding.]
•内分泌系统:心悸、怕热、多汗、烦渴、水肿、手抖、消瘦和肥胖[endocrine
system: palpitation, heat intolerance, excessive sweeting, polydipsia, edema
, hand tremble, wasting and obesity.]
•神经系统:头痛、晕厥、头晕和眩晕、失眠、偏瘫、失语[nervous system:
headache, coma, dizziness and vertigo, insomnia, hemiplegia, aphasia.]
•运动系统:关节痛、麻木、跛行、瘫痪[motor system: joint pain, numbness
, claudication, paralysis.]
3、个人史[personal history]
•出生于(出生地)[was born in (birthplace)]
•出生后一直生活[have lived in……(there) since birth]
•曾(未曾)去过北方[have (deny having) been to the north]
•受教育程度(文盲、小学、中学、大学)[educational level (illiterate,
primary, middle, high grade)]
•业余爱好[hobby (be fond of, be keen of, interest)]
•从事……职业[be engaged in]
•卫生习惯和嗜好[health habit and special addiction]
•不洁性交(性行为)史[history of unclean coitus (sexual behavior)]
•不吸烟[ no smoking(not a smoker)]
•吸烟20年,每天2包[have smoked two packages of cigarette a day for 20
years]
•戒烟[give up (stop) smoking]
•戒烟[smoking abstinence (withdrawal)]
•不饮酒[no alcohol use]
•偶而少量饮酒[drink little liquor occasionally]
•过度饮酒[drink heavily (too much)]
•每天饮酒0.5公斤[drink (imbibe) about 0.5 kilogram a day]
•酒精性饮料[alcoholic beverage]
•偏食[food preference (particular with food)]
•无偏食[no likes or dislikes in food]
•偏爱……[have partiality for (showe favoritism to, be partial to,
like)]




第五章 月经、婚姻、生育史和家族史
[Menstrual, marrital and childbearing history and family history]
1、月经史[menstrual history]
•初潮年龄[age of menarche]
•月经周期[menstrual cycle]
•行经期[menstrual period]
•未次月经时间[last menstrual period (LMP)]
•闭经年龄[age of menostasis]
•白带过多[profuse leukorrhea (whites)]
•月经过多[menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea, menometrorrhagia)]
•月经过少[hypomenorrhea (scantymenstruation)]
•月经过频[polymenorrhea]
•月经稀发[oligomenorrhea]
•月经不调[menoxenia (irregular menses, menstrual disorder)]
•月经正常[eumenorrhea (regular menses)]
•经前水肿(疼痛)[premenstrual edema (pain)]
•经量少(中、大)量[mild (moderate, heavy) meustrual blood]
•痛经[dysmenorrhea (pain during the flow)]
•36岁就停经了[pass the menopause at age 36]
2、婚姻史[marrital history]
•未婚(已婚)[single (married)]
•结婚年龄[age of wedding]
•配偶的健康状况[health status of partner (spouse)]
•性生活和谐(不和谐)[sexual life is harmonious (disorder)]
•夫妻关系和睦(不和睦)[relation of husband and wife is amicable (
hostile)]
•近亲(非近亲)结婚[consanguineous (nonconsanguineous) marriage]
3、生育史[childbearing history]
•妊娠(生育)次数和年龄[times and age of pregnancy (childbearing)]
•怀孕和生产次数[pregnancies and labors]
•人工(自然)流产次数[times of induced (spontaneous) abortion (
miscarriage)]
•流产 [miscarriage(abortion)]
•死胎(产)[dead fetus (birth)]
•割腹产[caesarean birth (be born by caesarean section)]
•子女数[number of children]
•早产(儿)[premature birth (bady)]
•足月产[term labor]
•产褥热(感染)[puerperal fever (infection)]
•计划生育[family planning (birth control)]
•用避孕环(药、油膏、套、栓)避孕[contraception by intrauterine ring (
contraceptives, ointment, condom, supposity)]
•节育手术[contraceptive operation]
•自然分娩[be delivered normally and spontaneously(spontaneous labor)]
•产钳分免[forceps delivery(be delivered by forceps)
•产前(后)子痫[antepartum(postpartum) eclampsia]
•出生时3.5公斤重,48厘米高[3.5 kilograms and 48cm in height at birth]
•母乳喂养[breast feeding (be fed at breast)]
•人工喂养[artificial feeding]
•发育正常[normal development]
•发育异常(停顿、缺陷、畸形)[developmental anomaly(arrest,defect,
deformity)]
•发育迟缓(过渡)[hypoevolutism(hypergenesis)]
4、家庭史[family history]
•父母(兄弟,姐妹和儿女)的健康状况和疾病情况[health status and
illness
of parents (brothers,sisters and children)]
•同样疾病[the same sickness]
•遗传疾病[heredopathia (genetic disease)]
•遗传特征[hereditary feature]
•死因[cause of death]
•健康[be healthy (be in good healthy)]
•健在[be living and well]
•无……家族史[no family history of ……]
•死于……[die of……]







第六章 体检(一般项目)[Physical examination(general items)]
•视诊[inspection]
•触诊[palpation]
•叩诊[percussion]
•听诊[auscultation]
•嗅诊[olfactory examination]
•浅(深)触诊法[light (deep) palpation]
•深部滑行(深压,双手,冲击)触诊法[deep slipping (deep press,bimanual
,ballottement]
•间接(直接)叩诊[indirect (direct) percussion]
•叩诊音(过清音,清音,浊音,鼓音,实音)[percussion sound (
hyperresonance,resonance,dullness,tympany,flatness)]
•用钟(膜)型胸件听诊[with the bell (diaphragmatic) chestpiece ]
1、体温[temperature, T]
•口(腋、肛)温[oral (axillary, rectal) temperature]
•经口(腋、肛)测的温度[per mouth (axilla, rectum)]
•摄氏与华氏换算[Centigrade VS Fahrenheit]
℃=5/9(℉-32)
℉=9/5℃+32
℃~℉ ℃~℉
36.5~97.7 38.5~101.3
37.0~98.6 38.9~102.0
37.2~99.0 39.0~102.2
37.5~99.5 39.4~103.0
37.8~100 40.0~104.0
38.0~100.4 40.5~104.9
38.3~101.0 41.0~105.8
•37.5℃.orally(99.5℉)[口温摄氏37.5度(华氏99.5度)]
2、脉搏[pulse, P]
•脉率72次/分[pulse 72 beats per minute(P 72 bpm)]
•搏动存在(消失)[pulse are present (absent)]
•速(缓)脉[fast (slow) pulse]
•洪(细丝)脉[bounding (small, thready) pulse]
•水冲脉[water hammer pulse]
•交替脉[alternating pulse]
•奇脉[paradoxical]
•二联(三联)脉[bigeminal (trigeminal) pulse]
•重脉[dicrotic pulse]
•间歇脉[intermittent pulse]
•陷落脉[collapsing]
•不规则(规则)脉[irregular(regular) pulse]
3、呼吸[respiration, R]
•呼吸频率[respiratory rate (RR)]
•呼吸频率19次/分[RR 19 beats/min (R 19 bpm)]
•规则(不规则)呼吸[regular (irregular) breathing]
•呼吸均匀[eupnea]
•呼吸急促(缓慢)[repid (slow) breathing]
•呼吸停止(中断)[pausal (interrupted) breathing]
•呼吸骤停[breath arrest]
•深(浅)呼吸[deep (superficial) breathing]
•呼吸困难[dyspna (short of breath)]
•呼吸费力[labored breathing]
•胸(腹)式呼吸[thoracic (abdominal) breathing]
•张口呼吸[mouth (buccal) breathing]
•周期性呼吸[periodic respiration]
•库斯毛氏呼吸[Kussmaul`s respiration]
•陈-施(潮式)呼吸[Cheyne-Stokes (tidal) respiration]
•间歇呼吸[Biot`s breathing]
•叹息样(胎儿,鼾样)呼吸[sighing (fetal, stertorous) respiration]
•口臭[have foul (fetid) breath (halitosis)]
•酮味呼吸[a smell of ketone]
•静息下(活动时)气促[dyspnea at rest (on exertion)]
•丙酮(氨臭,蒜臭)味[acetone (ammoniacal, alliaceous) odor]
•肝臭[hepaticus fetor]
•腋臭[bromidrosis]
4、血压[blood pressure, BP]
•收缩(舒张)压[systolic (diastolic) blood pressure]
•血压20/12千帕(150/90毫米汞柱)[BP 20/12 kPa(150/90mmHg)]
1kPa=7.5mmHg (1mmHg=0.1333kPa)
•血压为收缩压20,舒张压12千帕[Bp is 20 over 12 (Bp is 20 systolic and
12 diastolic)]
•测量血压[take (measure, check ) Bp]
•坐(卧)位血压[sitting (lying) Bp]
•无创(有创)血压[non-invasive (invasive) Bp]
•脉压[pulse pressure]
•血压测不出[Bp is unavailable (unobtained)]
•左臂(右臂)血压[Bp in left (right) arm]
•双下肢血压[Bp in both lower limbs]
•袖带[cuff]
5、体位[position]
•主动(被动、强迫)体位[active (passive, forced ) position]
•立(坐、卧)位[upright (sitting, dorsal) position]
•仰卧(俯卧)位[supine (prone) position]
•左(右)侧卧位[left (right) lateral (decubitus) position]
•蜷腿位[coiled position]
•半卧位[semi-reclining (semi-recumbent) position]
•端坐位[orthopnea position]
•胸膝(膝肘)位[knee-chest (knee-elbow) position]
•截石(分娩)位[dorsosacral (obstetric) position]
•角弓反张位[opisthotonus position]
•强迫蹲位[compulsive squattin]
•辗转体位[alternative position]
•头高(低)脚低(高)位[high (low) head and low(high) legs]
6、神志和意识[consciousness and mind]
•清醒(半清醒的)[alert (semi-conscious)]
•昏迷(半昏迷)的[comatose (semi-comatose)]
•无精打采的[listless]
•思睡的[somnolent (drowsy, sleepy)]
•昏睡的[lethargic]
•焦虑不安的[anxious (restless, apprehensive)]
•激动的[excited (irritable)]
•精神错乱的[confused]
•意识障碍[distrubance of consciousness]
•谵妄[delirium]
•抽搐[convulsion]
•木僵的[stuporous]
•合作佳(欠佳、差)[cooperation is good (not good enough, bad)]
•反应迟钝[have a dull reaction]
•有(无)定向力[be oriented (disoriented)]
•朦胧状态[be in a mist tent]
•神志模糊[blurred (dim, vague) mind]
•失去知觉[loss consciousness(unconsciousness)]
•对疼痛刺激的反应[reaction to painful stimuli]
7、面容[facial features]
•呈急(慢)性面容[be in acute (chronic) distress]
•病然面容[critical facies]
•濒死面容[hippocratic facies]
•苦笑面容[sardonic facies]
•表情不安 [anxious (distressing) expression]
•神情憔悴[ haggard expression]
•贫血(肾病、肝病)面容[anemic (nephrotic, hepatic) facies]
•二尖瓣(伤寒)面容[mitral (typhoid) facies]
•满月(面具)面容[moon (masked) facies]
•肢端肥大症面容[acromegaly facies]
•甲亢(粘液性水肿)面容[hyperthyroid (myxedema) facies]
•老年貌[senile feature]
•颜面潮红(苍白)[reddy (pale) facies]
•面色红润[florid facies]
8、发育[development]
•身高[body height (length)]
•身材(高大、矮小)[stature (tall, dwarf)]
•体格(强壮、脆弱)[physique (strong, weak)]
•青春期[adolescent spurt]
•体型[habitus]
▲无力(乏力、超力)型[asthenic (ortho-sthenic, sthenic) type]
▲巨人症(重体侏儒症、奄人症)[gigantism (pituitary dwarfism, eunuochism)]
▲运动员体型[athletic type]
▲矮胖(瘦长)型[stocky (lanky) type]
•一位发育良好(中等)的病人[a well (middle)-developed patient]
•发育不良(异常)[hypoplasia (dysplasia)]
•身高171厘米[177cm in height]
9、营养[nutrition]
•营养良好(中等、不良)[well (middle, under)-nourished]
•良好、不良,中等[well (poorly, fairly)]
•肥胖[obesity (overweight,fat)]
•消瘦[emaciation (underweight, thin, lean)]
•恶液质[cachexia]
•水牛背[buffalo hump]
10、姿势与步态[posture and gait]
•共济失调步态[ataxic (incoordination) gait]
•剪刀步态[scissors gait]
•慌张步态[festinating gait]
•跨域步态[steppage gait]
•摇摆步态[swaying gait]
•蹒跚步态[reeling (staggering, waddling) gait]
•闭目难立征[Romberg`s sign]
•间歇性跛行[intermittent claudication]
11、皮肤与粘膜[skin and mucosa]
▲颜色[color]
▲苍白(红色、暗红、潮红、粉红色)[pallor (redness, dusky redness, flush,
pinky)]
▲显得苍白[be (look) pale]
▲紫绀(手足发绀)[cyanosis (acrocyanosis)]
▲黄疸(黄染)[jaundice (stained yellow)]
▲黑色素[melanin]
▲色素沉着过多(减退)[hyper pigmentation (depigmentation)]
▲色素沉着增加(减少)[pigmentation increase(decrease)]
▲白癜(白斑)[vitiligo (leukoplakia)]
▲雀斑(老年斑)[fleck (senile plague)]
▲紫(妊娠)纹[purple (pregnant) striae]
▲多血症[be plethoric]
▲重度(中度、轻度)紫绀[be severely (moderately, slightly) cyanosis]
•湿度与弹性[moisture and elasticity]
▲干燥(湿润)的[dry (moist)]
▲湿冷[cold moist]
▲冷(暖、热)[cool (warm, hot)]
▲光滑(粗糙)的[smooth (rough)]
▲光亮的[shing]
▲紧张(松弛)的[taut (loose)]
▲软(硬)[soft (hard)]
▲鳞状(皱纹)的[scaly (wrinkling)]
▲有(无)弹性的[elastic (inelastic)]
▲萎缩(肥厚)的[atrophic (hypertrophic)]
▲皮下气肿[subcutaneous emphysema]
▲全身(局限)性水肿[anasarca (localized edema)]
▲凹陷性(非凹陷性)水肿(加重、减轻、消退)[pitting (non-pitting) edema (
increase, decrease, subside)]
•皮损[skin lesions]
▲皮疹[skin eruption]
▲斑疹[maculae]
▲玟瑰疹[roseola (rose spots)]
▲丘疹[papule]
▲斑丘疹[maculopapule]
▲风疹[rubella]
▲疱疹[belbs]
▲斑片[patch]
▲斑块[plaque]
▲荨麻疹[urticaria (hives)]
▲脱皮(屑)[desquamation (excoriation)]
▲蜘蛛痣[spider angioma]
▲皮下小结[subcutaneous nodules]
▲瘢痕[scar]
▲痱子[sudamen]
▲水(血、脓)疱[water (blood, pus ) bpister]
▲小(大)水疱[vesicle (bulla)]
▲单纯疱疹[herpes simplex]
▲风团(囊肿、肿瘤)[wheal (cyst, tumor)]
▲皮屑(鳞屑)[furfur (scale)]
▲结痂(焦痂)[crust (eschar)]
▲溃疡(糜烂、皱裂)[ulcer (erosion, fissure)]
▲肝掌(朱砂掌)[liver (erythema) palms]
▲黄褐斑[chloasma]
▲环形红斑[circinate erythema]
▲黑痣[pigmented nevas]
▲胎记[birthmark]
▲疣(鸡眼)[werruca (clavus)]
▲冻疮[pernio]
▲褥疮[bedsore (decubitus)]
▲渗液[exudate]
•出血[bleeding]
▲瘀点[petechia]
▲紫癜[purpura]
▲瘀斑[ecchymosis]
▲血肿[hematoma]
▲片状出血[splinter hemorrhage]
▲渗血[oozing of the blood]
▲压之褪色[blanch on pressure]
12、头发与指甲[hair and nail]
•头发(稀疏、浓密、秃头)的[hair (sparse, dense, bald)]
•头皮[scalp]
•粗(细)[coarse (fine)]
•密(疏)[thick (thin)]
•干性(油性)[dry (oily)]
•有(无)光泽的[lustrous (lusterless)]
•多(少、无)毛[hairy (oligotrichosis, hairless)]
•脱发(斑秃、全秃)[hair loss (alopecia areata, baldness)]
•眉毛(阴毛、腋毛)稀少(过多)[scant (excessive) eyebrows (public
hair, axillary hair)]
•体毛(胡须)[body hair(beard) ]
•全身性多毛症[hypertrichosis universalis]
•毛发的性状和分布[quality and distribution of the hair]
•甲变形(匙状甲)[deformities of nail (spoonnail)]
•薄(脆)甲[thin (brittle) nail]
•甲脱落[ongchoptosis]
13、浅表淋巴结[superficial lymph nodes]
•浅表淋巴结未扪及[be no palpable superficial lymph nodes (…can not be
palpated)]
•淋巴结肿大[enlarged lymph nodes (lymphnode enlargement)]
•部位[site]
▲全身(局部)[general (local)]
▲耳前(后)淋巴结[pre(post)-auricular nodes]
▲枕后淋巴结[occipital nodes]
▲颏下淋巴结[submental nodes]
▲下颌淋巴结[submaxillary nodes]
▲颈前(后)淋巴结[anterior (posterior) cervical nodes]
▲ 锁骨上淋巴结[supraclavicular nodes]
▲滑车上淋巴结[epitrochlear nodes]
▲腋窝上(内侧,前,后,外侧)淋巴结[axillary top (medial,anterior,posterior
,lateral)]
▲腹股沟淋巴结(横组,纵组)[inguinal nodes (transverse group,longitudinal
group) lymphnode]
•大小[size]
▲4×2cm大小[4 by 2 cm in diameter (size)]
▲米粒(豌豆,核桃,小指,拇指,拳头,手掌,鸡蛋)大小[size of a rice grain
(pea,walnut,small,ringer,thumb,fist,palm,hen’s egg)]
▲针头大小[pinhead size]
▲苹果大小[size of an apple]
▲小孩头(成人大小)[size of a(n) infant’s(man’s) head]
•形态[shape]
▲不规则[irregular]
▲结节(颗粒、纺锤)状的[tuberous (granular,spindle-shaped)]
▲光滑(粗糙)的[smooth (coarse)]
▲平坦(凹凸不平)的[flat (uneven)]
▲球(椭园,卵园,园)形的[globular (elliptical,oval,circular)]
•硬度和活动度[hardness and mobility]
▲硬(软)[hard (soft)]
▲石头(骨)样硬[of stone-like (bone-like)]
▲可活动(固定)的[movable (fixed)]
▲与周围组织(结构)固定[be fixed to the surrounding tissues (structures)]
▲压痛[tenderness]
▲融合(粘连)[fusion (adhesion)]
▲肿胀(疤痕)[swelling (fistula)]



























第七章 体检(头颈部)[Physical examination(head and neck)]

1、头颅[cranium,skull]
•头颅变形[deforming skull]
•头形(围)[head contour (circumference)]
•小颅(尖颅,巨颅)[microcephalism (acrocephalia,large skull)]
•长(短)头[dolichocephalia (brachycephalism)]
•方(塔)颅[squared (tower) skull]
•落日现象[sitting sun phenomenon]
•颅缝[cranial suture]
•前(后)囟门[anterior (posterior) fontanel]
•囟门膨出(塌陷)[bulging (edpressed) fontanel]
•囟门晚(早)闭[delayded (earlier) closure of the fontanel]
2、眼球[eyeball]
•眼球浮动[ocular bobbing]
•眼球破裂[eyeball rupture]
•眼球穿孔伤[ocular-perforating injury]
•眼球内异物[intralcular foreign body]
•眼距增宽(变窄)[ocular hypertelorism (hypotelorism)]
•眼球萎缩[atrophy of eyeball]
•眼球突出(凹陷)[exophthalmos (enophthalmos)]
•眼球震颤[nystagmus]
•眼球固定[eyeball fixation (stare)]
•眼球活动受限[limitation of eye movement]
•假眼[ocular prosthesis]
•眼外肌运动[extraocular movements]
3、眼睑[eyelids]
•睑内(外)翻[entropion (ectropion)]
•流泪[lacrimation]
•上睑下垂[ptosis]
•眼睑痉挛(松驰)[blepharospasm (blepharo-chalasis)]
•眼睑水肿(红肿)[edema (redness and swelling) of the eyelids]
•瞬目过少[nictitation diminution(lid lag )]
•瞬目过多[frequent nictitation (blinking)]
•眼裂缩小(增宽)[blepharophimosis (blepharodia stasis)]
•眼睑充血[blepharal hyperemia]
•泪囊[lacrimal sac ]
•睫毛反射[eyelash reflexes]
•压眶反射[reaction to pressure on the supraocular notch]
•皱眉(皱额,闭目)[raise eyebrows (wrinkle forehead,force eyelids
closing)]
4、结膜[conjunctive]
•结膜反射[conjunctival reflexes]
•充血[congestion]
•红(白)[redness (pallor)]
•球结膜水肿[chemosis]
•结膜滤泡(滤泡增生)[conjunctival follicle (folliculosis)]
•沙眼[trachoma]
•胬肉[pterygium]
•水样(脓性)分泌物[watery (purulent) discharge]
5、角膜和巩膜[cornea and sclerae]
•角膜反射[corneal reflexes]
•角膜混浊[cornea opacity]
•透明(不透明)的[transparent (opaque)]
•异物[foreign body]
•老年环[arcus senilis]
•溃疡(穿孔)[ulcer (perferation)]
•黄染(无黄染)[stained yellow (anicteric)]
6、瞳孔[pupil]
•右眼[OD (oculus dextet)]
•左眼[OS (oculus sinister)]
•2mm大小[2mm in size]
•等大等园[be equal and round ]
•瞳孔大小不一[unevenness of pupils (anisocoria)]
•固定[fixed]
•瞳孔缩小[contraction of pupils (miosis)]
•瞳孔散大[dilation of pupils (platycoria)]
•瞳孔畸形(闭锁)[deformity (seclusion) of pupils]
•直接(间接)对光反射[direct (consensual) response to light]
•瞳孔对光反射(佳)(差)[good (poor) light reflex of pupils]
•对光反射存在[retain light reflexes]
•调节反射[accommodation reflex]
•辐辏反射[convergence reflex]
7、视力和视野[Vision and Visual fields]
•视力模糊(减退,差)[blurred (impaired, poor) Vision]
•弱视[amblyopia]
•复视[double vision (diplopia)]
•斜视[strabismus]
•麻痹性斜视[paralytic squint]
•偏盲[hemiscotosis]
•失明[amaurosis (blindness)]
•夜盲[night blindness]
•色盲[color blindness]
•全色盲[achromatopsia]
•绿(蓝)色盲[achromatopsia green(blue) blindness]
•红-绿色盲[red-green blindness]
•色弱[color weakness]
•远视[far-sightedness (far –sighted,hyeropia)]
•近视[short-sightedness (short-sighted,nearsightedness,myopia)]
•右(左)眼200度[200 degree,OD(OS)]
•左(右)眼视力[OS(OD) vision]
•视野完整[full (intact) visual fields]
•象限视野缺损[tetarfanopia]
•单侧(双颞侧)缺损[unilateral (bitemporal) defect]
•视野缺损[visual field defect]
•视野缩小[contraction of visual field]
8、眼底和眼压[fundus and intraocular pressure]
•眼底镜检查[fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy)]
•眼底清晰[fundi are clear]
•小动脉(小静脉)[arteriole (venule)]
•小动脉狭窄[narrow arteriole]
•小动脉硬化[arteriolosclerosis]
•微动脉瘤[microaneurysm]
•动静脉压迹[A-V nicking]
•点状(头焰样)出血[punctate (flame) hemorrhage]
•视乳头色素沉着[pigmentation of disc (retina)]
•视神经乳头(视神经)水肿[papilledema (papilloedema)]
•视乳头凹陷(苍白)[excavation (pallor) of optic disc]
•视网膜出血(水肿,渗出)[retinal hemorrhage (edema,exudation)]
•视网膜色素变性[pigmentary degeneration of retina]
•视网膜剥离[retinodialysis]
•视网膜变性(损伤)[retinal degeneration (injury)]
•测眼压[intraocular pressure measurement]
•眼压升高(降低)[increase (decrease) of intraocular pressure]
9、耳廓和外耳道[pinna and external canal]
•红(肿、痛,压痛)[redness (swelling,pain,tenderness)]
•糜烂(渗出物,脓性分泌物)[erosion (exudate,purulent discharge)]
•疱疹(瘘管,小水疱,血疱)[herpes (fistula,visicle,blood blisters)]
•狭窄(闭锁)[stenosis (clausura)]
•耵聍(耵聍栓塞,耵聍过多)[cerumen (ceruminal impaction,ceruminosis)]
•耳疖[furuncle of ear ]
•耳化脓(溢脓)[otopyosis (otopyorrhea)]
•耳廓假性囊肿[pseudocyst of auricle]
•外耳道异物[foreign body of external auditory canal]
•耵聍钩(钳)[cerumen hook (forceps)]
10、鼓膜[tympanic membrane (drum)]
•光反射[light reflex]
•红色(粉红色,苍白)[be red (pink,pale)]
•鼓膜内陷[otopiesis (indrawing of drum)]
•鼓膜膨出[umbo (bulge of drum)]
•鼓膜穿孔(粘连)[perforation (adherence) of drum]
•中央(周围)性穿孔[central (marginal) perforation]
•鼓膜破裂[myringorupture]
•鼓膜增厚(充血,疤痕,疱疹,肉芽)[hypertrophy (congestation,scar,
herpes,granulation) of drum]
•鼓室积水(血)[hydrotympanum (hematotympanum)]
11、听力[audition (hearing)]
•听觉过敏(减退)[hyperacusis (hypoacusis)]
•听觉不良(迟钝,障碍)[dysacousis (bradyacusia, dysacusis)]
•听觉域[auditory sensation area]
•听力正常[normal hearing]
•听力(觉)迟钝[auditus depression (amblyacousia)]
•听力障碍[dysaudia]
•听力丧失[hearing loss (disability)]
•传导性(神经性,感音神经性)耳聋[conductive (neural,sensorineural)
deafness]
•老年性耳聋[presbycusis]
•音叉试验[tuning fork test]
•秒表(耳语)听力检查[stopwatch (whisper) audiometry]
•韦伯氏试验(骨导偏向试验)[Weber’s test]
•任内氏试验(气骨导听力比较试验)[Rinne’s test]
•施瓦巴赫氏试验(骨导对比试验)[Schwabach’s test]
12、鼻[nose]
•酒渣鼻[rosacea]
•鞍(蛙状)鼻[saddle(frog) nose]
•畸形(肿胀,溃疡)[deformity (swelling,ulcer)]
•鼻翼扇动[flaring (movement) of alae nasi (nasal ala flap)]
•鼻骨骨折[fracture of nasal bone]
•鼻疖[nasal furuncle]
•鼻道狭窄[rhinostenosis (stenosis of nasal canal)]
•流涕[running nose]
•鼻粘膜干燥(苍白,红)[dry (pale,red ) mucosa]
•鼻腔异物[nasal foreign body]
•鼻粘膜萎缩(肥厚,肿胀)[nasal mucosa atrophy (hypertrophy,swelling)]
•鼻孔(甲)[naris (turbinates)]
•上(中、下)鼻甲[superior (middle,inferior ) turbinates]
•鼻塞[nasal obstruction]
•鼻中隔偏移(穿孔,肿胀,血肿,溃疡)[deviation (perforation,swelling,
hematoma,ulcer) of nasal septum]
•鼻(副鼻)窦[nasal (paranasal) sinus]
•额(上颌,蝶,筛)窦[frontal (maxillary,sphenoid,ethmoid) sinus]
•鼻窦压痛[tenderness over sinuses]
•鼻镜检查[rhinoscopy]
13、嗅觉[smell (scent)]
•嗅觉减退(敏锐)[hyposmia (oxyosmia)]
•嗅觉异常[heterosmia]
•嗅觉测定[measurement of olfaction]
•嗅觉倒错(嗅幻觉)[paraosmia (olfactory hallucination]
•嗅觉缺失[anosmia]
14、口腔粘膜与唇[mucosa of mouth and lips]
•口腔(唇)[oral cavity (lips)]
•口瘢痕挛缩[cicatricial contracture of mouth]
•口疮[aphtha]
•口角[angle of mouth]
•唇(口角)干裂[cheilosis (angular cheilosis)]
•皱裂[ehagades]
•口裂[oral fissure]
•干燥(湿润)[dry (moist)]
•口唇干燥[xerocheilia (desiccation fissure)]
•口臭[halitosis (ozostomia)]
•口唇(腔)疱疹[herpes labialis (of mouth)]
•口唇肥厚[lips pachynsis]
•口角糜烂[perleche]
•口腔坏疽[oral gangrene]
•柯泼力克氏斑[Koplik’s spots]
•口腔白斑(溃疡形成)[oral leukoplakia (ulceration)]
•口水(口涎增多)[saliva (ptyalism)]
•口周苍白(雀斑)[circum-oral pallor (freckle)]
•闭口困难[open bite (closure lips irreducible)]
•张口受阻(困难)[limitation (difficulty) of mouth opening]
15、牙齿[tooth]
•牙表面[tooth surface]
•牙不齐[odontoloxy (alignment disorder,malalignment)]
•牙发育不全(异常)[metodontiasis (dysplasia dentalis)]
•牙根折断[dental root fracture]
•牙齿缺失[anodontia (absence of the tooth)]
•牙脱落[odontoptosis (lose a tooth)]
•缺齿[missing teeth]
•残根[residual root]
•牙松动[odontoseisis (loosening of the tooth)]
•牙垫[bite-block]
•牙磨损[tooth abrasion]
•牙骨质增生[hypercementosis]
•牙冠破裂[cracking of crown]
•牙石[odontolith (tartar,dental calculus)]
•牙列拥挤[crowded dentition]
•牙缝宽[wide interdental space]
•牙萌出过迟(早)[delayed (premature) eruption of tooth]
•牙线[dental floss]
•牙髓腔(炎)[pulp cavity (pulpitis)]
•拔牙[extract (pull out ,draw out,put out) a tooth]
•假牙[false (artificial tooth)]
•假牙[prosthesis]
•镶牙[insert tooth]
•龋齿[decayed teeth (dental caries)]
•龋洞[carious cavity]
•牙面色素沉着[pigmentation of tooth surface]
•牙关紧闭[trismus (lockjaw)]
•牙触(叩击)痛[tooth tenderness (percussion pain)]
•牙周囊肿(感染,萎缩)[periodontal cyst (infection,atrophy)]
16、牙龈[gum (gingiva)]
•牙龈出血(囊肿,坏疽,撕裂)[gingival bleeding (cyst,gangrene,
laceration)]
•牙龈充血(肿胀,糜烂)[gingival engorgement (swelling,erosion)]
•牙龈萎缩(增生)[gingival atropy (hyperplasia)]
•牙龈(牙周)溢脓[gingival pyorrhea (peripyema)]
•牙龈脓肿[gumboil]
17、舌[tongue]
•舌背静脉[dorsal lingual veins]
•舌颤动[tremulous tongue (lingual tremor)]
•舌淀粉样变性[amyloid degeneration of tongue]
•舌后坠[glossocoma]
•舌尖麻木[tongue tip numbness]
•舌裂[split tongue]
•舌脓肿(溃疡)[tongue abscess (ulcer)]
•舌乳头(体,背)[papillae (body, dorsum) of tongue]
•舌苔[coated (furred) tongue]
•地图(草莓,镜面)舌[geographic (strawberry, marror face) tongue]
•裂纹(牛肉)舌[wrinkled (beefy) tongue]
•毛舌[hairy tongue]
•舌光滑(粗糙)[smooth (rough) tongue]
•舌滤泡[lingual follicles]
•舌干燥[sausarism]
•舌肌萎缩(肥厚)[atrophy (hypertrophy) of tongue muscle]
•舌系带过短[tongue tie (ankyloglossia)]
•舌下囊肿(溃疡,脓肿,肿块)[sublingnal cyst (ulcer, abscess, tumor)]
•伸舌困难(偏斜)[difficulty (deviation) of tongue extenison movement]
18、咽和扁桃体[pharynx and tonsil]
•鼻(口)咽[nasal (oral) pharynx]
•扁桃体不肿大[no enlargement of tonsil]
•无充血和渗出[no injection (congestion) and exudate]
•脓点(滤泡,白色小点)[beads of pus (follicle, white particle)]
•扁桃体出血(感染,肥大,溃疡)[hemorrhage (infection, hypertrophy,
ulcer) of tonsil]
•扁桃体肿大[swelling of tonsil]
•扁桃体(后,周围)脓肿[tonsillar (retrotonsillar, peritonsillar)
abscess]
•扁桃体缺如[tonsil deletion]
•扁桃体隐窝(窝)[tonsillar crypts (fossa)]
•咽部异物(溃疡,分泌物)[pharyneal foreign body (ulcer, secretion)]
•咽后壁淋巴滤泡增生[retropharyneal folliculosis]
•咽部干燥(疱疹,充血,水肿)[dryness (herpes, congestion, swelling)
of throat]
•咽反射[pharynx reflex]
•咽下不能[dysphagia]
•腮腺肿大[enlargement of parotid gland]
19、喉[larynx]
•白喉(喉白斑)[diphtheritic croup (leukoplakia of larynx)]
•喉闭锁[atretolemia]
•喉梗阻[laryngemphraxis (laryngeal obstruction)]
•喉痉挛(狭窄)[laryngeal spasm(laryngo-stenosis)]
•喉头痉挛[laryngospasm]
•喉反射[laryngeal reflex]
•喉坏死(钙化)[necrosis (calcification)of larynx]
•喉瘘(囊肿,脓肿,息肉,血肿,异物)[laryngeal fistula(cyst,abscess,
polyp,hematoma,foreign body)]
•喉膨出[laryngocele]
•喉缺失[absence of largnx]
•喉头水肿[laryngeal edema]
•声嘶(哑)[hoarseness (dumbness)]
•变(失)声[mutation (loss) of voice]
•失音[aphonia]
•发音(构音)障碍[pararthria (dysarthria)]
•喉部感觉缺失[laryngeal anesthesia]
•会厌发育不全(擦伤,裂,囊肿,脓肿)[agenesis (abrasion, fissure,
cyst, abscess) of epiglottis]
•会厌分叉(结节)[bifid epiglottis(epiglottic tubercle)]
•声带肥厚[hypertrophy of vocal cords]
•声带麻痹[vocal cord paralysis]
•声带小结[vocal nodule]
•声带息肉[polyp of vocal cord]
•声门痉挛[glottis spasm]
•声门下狭窄[subglottic stenosis]
20、颈部[neck]
•颈部创伤[neck trauma]
•颈部淋巴结(囊肿)[cervical lymph node (cyst)]
•颈动脉窦按摩[carotid sinus massage]
•颈强直[neck rigidity (stiff-neck rigidity, stiff neck)]
•颈软[soft neck (supple)]
•斜颈[torticollis]
•角弓反张[opisthotonus]
•颈静脉搏动(曲张)[jugular pulse (varicosity)]
•颈静脉怒张[jugular vein distention (JVD)]
•颈静脉充盈(怒张)[jugular vein is full(distention and prominence)]
•库斯毛氏征[Kussmaul`s sign]
•肝颈反流[hepatojugular reflex]
•收缩期(舒张期)囊颤[systolic (diastolic) thrill]
•颈动脉搏动异常(增强、减弱、消失)[abnormal carotid pulsation (
increase, decrease, disappearance)]
21、甲状腺[thyroid]
•弥漫(局灶,结节)性甲状腺肿大[diffuse (local, nodular) thyroid
enlargement]
•甲状腺震颤[thyroid tremor]
•震颤[thrill]
•甲状腺血管杂音[thyroid vascular murmur]
•甲状腺峡部[isthmus of thyroid gland]
•甲状旁腺[parathyroid gland]
•甲状腺囊肿(滤泡、肿块,出血)[thyroid cyst (follicle, tumor,
hemorrhage)]
22、气管[trachea]
•气管插管[endotracheal intubation]
•气管痉挛[tracheospasm]
•气管囊肿(息肉、狭窄、移位)[tracheal cyst (polyp, stenosis ,
displacement)]
•气管(向右)偏移[displacement of trachea (tracheal deviation to the
right)]
•气管居中[trachea is in the midline]
•气管内异物[intratracheal foreign body]






第八章 体检(胸腹部)[Physical examination(chest and belly)]

1、肋骨和软组织[ribs and soft tissure]
•胸骨上切迹[suprasternal notch]
•浮肋[free ribs]
•胸壁[chest wall]
•扁平(桶状、佝偻、漏头、鸡)胸[flat (barrel,rachitic, funnel, pigeon)
chest]
•皮下气肿[subcutaneous emphysema]
•捻发音[Crepitus]
•佝偻病串珠[rachitic rosary]
•软骨病[chondrosteoma]
•脂肪瘤[lipoma]
•软骨发育不全[achondroplasia (chondrodysplasia)]
•软组织损伤[soft tissue injury]
•肋骨畸形[abnormality of the ribs(rib deformity, costal anomaly)]
•肋骨串珠(错位)[beading (displacement) of rib]
•肋软骨畸形[costochondral deformity]
•肋软骨增生[costal cartilage hyperplasia]
•肋下切口[subcostal incision]
•肋间隙宽(窄)[wide (narrow) intercostal space]
2、乳房[breast]
•对称性[symmetry]
•乳头内陷(内缩)[crater (retracted) nipple]
•乳头皱裂[cracked nipple]
•乳头偏斜(抬高)[nipple skewness(elevation)]
•乳头溢液[nipple discharge]
•乳头脓肿(溃疡、血肿)[abscess (ulcer, hematoma) of nipple]
•乳头过小[hypomastia]
•乳斑[milk spots]
•乳房潮红[breast flush]
•乳房出血[mastorrhagia]
•乳房过早发育[premature thelarche]
•乳房肿胀(脓肿)[mammary swelling(abscess)]
•乳房湿疹[eczema mammae]
•乳房下垂[mastoptosis (pendulous breast)]
•乳房萎缩[mastatrophy]
•巨乳[macromastia]
•乳晕[mammary areola]
•乳房硬化[zaranthan]
•异常泌乳[abnormal lactation]
•男子女性化乳房[gynecomastism]
•乳房皮肤红肿[erythroswelling of mammary skin]
•乳房桔皮征[mammary orange-peel sign]
•乳记局限性凹陷[mammary localized pitting]
•乳房瘘管[breast fistula]
•正常女性乳房[normal female breasts]
•无压痛性肿块[nontender mass]
3、肺[lung]
•呼吸缓慢(急促)[bradypnea (tachypnea)]
•呼吸浅慢(深快)[hypopnea (hyperpnea)]
•呼吸不规则[irregular respiration]
•点头呼吸[nodding breathing]
•端坐呼吸[orthopnea]
•三凹征[retraction sign of three fossae]
•叹息样呼吸[sighing respiration]
•浅快[shallow and rapid]
•呼(吸)气性呼吸困难[expiratory (inspiratory) dyspnea]
•呼吸道烧伤(塌陷)[burn (collapse) of respiratory tract(airway)]
•呼吸道阻塞[respiratory tract obstruction]
•呼吸均匀(呼吸加深或加快)[eupnea(exaggerated or acclerated
respiratory)]
•呼吸停止[apnea]
•呼吸费力[respiration is labored]
•语音(触觉)震颤[vocal (tactile) fremitus]
•语颤相等(减弱、增强)[vocal fremitus is equal(diminished,
accentuated)]
•间接(直接)叩诊[mediate (immediate) percussion]
• 浊(实、鼓、清、过清、金属)音[dullness (flatness, tympany,
vesicular resonance, hyperresonance, bell)]
•移动范围[range of movement]
• 呼吸音消失(减弱,增强)[absence (diminution, exaggeration) of
breath sound]
•呼吸音粗(清)[sound of breath(SOB) is rough (clear)]
•支气管(支气管肺泡,肺泡)音[bronchophony (bronchovesicular sound,
vesicular sound)]
•管状呼吸音[tubular breath sound]
•捻发音[crepitant rales]
•爆裂音[crackles]
•干(湿)罗音[dry (moist) rales]
•细(中等、粗)罗音[fine (medium, coarse) rales]
•呼(吸)气未罗音[end-inspiratory (expiratory) rales]
•胸膜摩擦音[pleural friction rub]
•呼(吸)气延长[prolonged inspiratory (expiratory)]
•高(低)调鼾音[sibilant (sonorous) rhonchi (sonorous rales)]
•哨笛音[sibilant rales]
•哮鸣音[wheezing]
•小(中、大)水泡音[small(middle, big) bubbles]
•支气管语音[bronchophony]
•耳语音[whispered]
•羊鸣音[egophony]
•高(低)音调[high (low)-pitched]
•两肺部(右背部)[over both lung fields (right back)]
•两(左)肺底[over the both (left) lower lung]
•整个肺野[the whole lung field]
•左(右)上(下)肺[the left (right) upper (lower) lung]
•肺尖(底)[apex (base) of lung]
4、心脏[Heart]
•用手掌(指尖)触诊心尖搏动[palpate apical area with palm(fingertips)]
•心前区隆起(凹陷)[precordial bulge (retraction)]
•搏动弥漫(局限)[diffuse (local) pulsation]
•负性搏动[inward inpulse]
•心尖搏动[apex beat (apical impulse)]
•剑突下搏动[xiphoideusal pulsaton]
•抬举性心尖搏动[heaving apex impulse]
•心尖搏动最强点[point of maximal impulse (PMI)]
•锁骨中线[mid-calvicular line (MCL)]
•肋间[intercostal space (ICS)]
•收缩(舒张)期震颤[systolic (diastolic) thrill]
•心浊音界[the border of cardiac dullnes]
•心绝对(相对)浊音界扩大(缩小)[enlarged (diminished) absolute (
relative) cardiac dullness]
•叩诊心脏大小正常[heart size is normal on (to) percussion]
•心脏向左(右)扩大[cardiac dilation (enlargement) to the left (right)]
•第1(2、3、4)心音[S1(S2,S3,S4)]
•第1心音增强(减弱,听不清)[first heart sound is exaggerate (
decreased, muffled)]
•生(病)理性杂音(分裂)[physiologic (pathological) murmur (splitting
)]
•生理性(固定、反常、逆)分裂[physiologic (fixed, paradoxical,
reversed) splitting]
•肺动脉瓣第2心音>(=,<)主动脉瓣第2心音[P2>(=,<)A2]
•大炮音[connon sound]
•心音消失[heart sound is absent (disapeared)]
•心音增强(减弱)[accentuated (diminished) cardiac sound]
•心音响亮(遥远)[cardiac sound is loud (distant)]
•收缩期(舒张期,连续性)杂音[systolic (diastolic, continuous) murmur]
•收缩(舒张)前(中、晚)期杂音[pre-(mid-, post) systolic (diastolic)
murmur]
•全收缩期的[holosystolic(pansystolic)]
•全舒张期的[holodiastolic (pandiastolic)]
•低(高)音调[low (high) pitched]
•递减(递增,递减-递增)性杂音[decrescendo (crescendo, decrescendo-
crescendo)murmur]
•呈喷射型[be ejection in type]
•Ⅳ级喷射型收缩期杂音[grade Ⅳ(I-Ⅳ/6) systolic ejection murmur]
•吹风样杂音[murmur of puffing character]
•低音调隆隆样[low-pitched rumbling quality]
•柔和(粗糙)的[soft (harsh or rough)]
•吹风样(喷射性、隆隆样、沙沙声样、搔抓声样、机器声样、汽笛声样、倒水
声样)杂音[blowing (ejection, rumbling, rustting, scratching, machinary,
whistling, pouring )murmur]
•功能性(器质性)杂音[functional (organic) murmur]
•血管(静脉)杂音[vascular (venous) murmur]
•枪击音[pistol shot sound]
•静脉营营音[venous hum]
•奔马律[gallop rhythm]
•胎心律[embryocardia]
•心律齐(不齐)[regular (irregular) rhythm]
•心律不齐[arrhythmia]
•二(三)联律[bigeminy (trigeminy)]
•早搏[premature (extrasystol)]
•喀嗽音[click]
•钟摆律[pendular rhythm]
•二尖瓣开瓣音[mitral opening snap]
•心包摩擦音[pericardial friction sound]
•听诊[on auscultation]
•二尖瓣(主瓣,肺瓣,三尖瓣)听诊区[mitral (aortic, pulmonary,
tricuspid) valve area]
•心包叩击音[pericardial knock]
•肿瘤扑落音[tumor plop]
5、腹部[abdomen]
•腹(妊娠)纹[abdominal striae (striae gravidarum)]
•腹膨隆[abdominal distention (prominence)]
•腹平坦(凹陷)[abdominal flatness (retraction)]
•蛙状(球状、舟状)腹[frog(bulbous, scaphoid) belly (abdomen)]
•腹围增大[increased abdominal girth]
•肠型[intestinal pattern]
•梯形腹[ladder-shaped abdomen]
•胃(小肠)蠕动波[gastric (intestinal) peristaltic wave]
•静脉曲张[varicosity (dilated tortuous vein)]
•疤痕[scar]
•腹壁紧张(松驰)[guarding (abdominal muscular relaxation)]
•腹壁切口(创伤)[incision (wound) of abdominal wall]
•腹部分区[abdominal region]
•左(右)上(下)腹[left (right) upper (lower) quadrant]
•脐膨出[projection of the umbilicus]
•腹式呼吸[abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing]
•腹壁松弛[lax abdominal wall]
•肝肿大[hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)]
•脾肿大[splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)]
•右肋下5厘米[5 cm below the right costal margin]
•肿块(肝)质硬[firm mass (liver)]
•莫菲氏征[murphy`s sigh]
•肌卫现象[muscle guarding (tension)]
•反跳痛[rebound tenderness]
•压痛点[tenderness point]
•剑突下压痛[tenderness beneath the xiphoid process]
•麦氏点压痛[McBurney`s point tenderness]
•腹肌强直(板状腹,板样强直)[rigor of abdominal muscle (wooden belly,
board-like rigidity)]
•柔韧感[dough kneeding sensation]
•波动感[fluctuation]
•腹股沟疝[inguinofemoral hernia]
•腹壁反射[abdominal reflex]
•腹水征[sign of ascites]
•膀胱肿大[bladder expansion]
•膀胱区(脊肋角)压痛[tenderness of bladder region (costovertebral
angle)]
•肾(肝)区叩击病[percussion tenderness on kidney (liver) region]
•移动性浊音[shifting dullness]
•鼓音[tympany(tampanitic resonance)]
•肝(脾)浊音区[hepatic (splenic)dullness area]
•肠鸣音正常(亢进、减弱、消失)[normal (hyperactive, diminished,
absent) bowel sound]
•气过水声[gurgling]
•振水声[succusion (splashing) sound]



第九章 体检(神经、骨骼和肌肉)[Physical examination(nerve,skeleton and
muscle)]

•痛(空间、触、视、震动、实体、立体、姿势、光、运动、味、温、色、平衡
)[pain (space, tactil, visual, vibratory, strereognostic, proprioceptive,
posture, light, kinesthetic, taste, thermic, color, equilibrium) sense]
•关节觉[arthresthesia]
•震动觉[seismesthesia]
•复合感觉[synaesthesia]
•听(位置,嗅)觉[sense of hearing (position, smell)]
•感觉异常(缺失,过敏,减退)[abnormal sensation (anesthesia,
hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia)]
•半身感觉缺失[hemisensory defect]
•感觉迟钝(错乱)[dysesthesia (paresthesia)]
•感觉障碍(异常)[sensory disturbance (paraesthesia)]
•感觉正常[intact sensation (euesthesia)]
•痛觉过敏(减退)[hyperalgia (hypoalgia)]
•痛觉缺失[alganesthesia (analgesia)]
•嗅觉迟钝(减退,过敏)[amblyaphia (hypopselaphesia, hyperpselaphesia)]
•束带状感觉[girdle sensation]
•蚁走感[formication (creeping sensation)]
•瘫痪(偏瘫、单瘫、截瘫、四肢瘫)[paralysis (hemiplegia, monoplegia,
碍paraplegia, quadriplegia)]
•软(硬)瘫[soft (stiff) paralysis]
•周围(中枢)性瘫[peripheral (central) paralysis]
•轻瘫[paresis]
•交叉性(同向性)瘫[alternate (cojugate) paralysis]
•交叉瘫[crossed paralysis]
•痉挛性(弛缓性、癔病性、小儿)瘫(麻痹)[spastic (flaccid, hysterial,
infantile) paralysis]
•重症肌无力[bulbospinal paralysis]
•扑翼样震颤[asterixis]
•手足搐搦[tetany]
•共济失调[ataxia]
•手足徐动症[athetosis]
•舞蹈样运动[choreiform movement (chorea)]
•肌颤[muscular fibrillation]
•肌阵挛[myoclonus]
•震颤麻痹[paralysis agitans (shaking palsy,Parkison`s disease)]
•颤动[tremor (twitch)]
•随意运动[voluntary movement]
•肌力正常(减退)[muscular power (myodynamia, myosthemic) is normal (
decreased)]
•肌力消失[loss of power]
•左上肢肌力III度[3 degree in the left upper extrimity]
•肌无力[weakness of the muscle (amyosthenia, myasthenia)]
•肌张力减低[hypomyotonia (decreased muscular tone)]
• 痉挛性(强直性)肌张力增高[spastic (tonic) hypermyotonia (hypertonia
of the muscle, increased muscular tone)]
•肌弛缓(肌张力缺失)[amyotonia]
•折刀现象[clasp knife]
•齿轮样强直[cogwheel rigidity]
•肌阵挛(痉挛)[muscular clonus (spasm)]
•摇摆(蹒跚、剪刀形、鸭走形、酒醉小脑病、摇曳、慌张)步态[swaying (
reeling, scissors, waddling, drunken, cerebella, cow, festinating)gait]
•共济失调(共济运动,共济失调步态)[incoordination (coordinated
movement, afaxic gait)]
•跛行步态(间歇性跛行)[claudication gait (intermittent claudication)]
•闭目难立试验(阳性,阴性)[Romberg`s sign (positive, negative)]
•摸空征[carphology]
•指鼻(指-指)试验[finger-nose(finger) test]
•轮替动作[alternate motion]
•跟膝胫试验[heel-knee-tibia test]
•生理(病理)反射[physiologic (pathologic) reflex]
•角膜(张口,结膜,咽,腭,眼睑,咳嗽,吞咽,对光,瞳孔)反射[corneal
(gag, conjunctival, pharyngeal, palatal, lid, cough, deglutition, light,
pupillary) reflex]
•腹壁反射[abdominal wall reflex]
•提睾(肛门)反射[cremasteric (anal) reflex]
•肱二(三)头肌反射[biceps (triceps) reflex]
•股二(四)头肌反射[biceps (quadricels) femories reflex]
•三角肌(伸肌)反射[deltoid (extensor) feflex]
•抓握(牵拉,吸吮,防御,条件)反射[grasp (stretch, sucking,protective
, conditioned) reflex]
•跖(骨膜)反射[plantar (periosteal) reflex]
•跟腱反射[heel-tap (achilles tendon) reflex]
•拥抱反射[clasping (embrace, Moro`s) reflex]
•深(浅)反射[deep (superficial) reflex]
•压眶反射[reaction to pressure on the supraocular notch]
•桡骨膜反射[radioperiosteal reflex]
•膝(跟腱)反射[knee (achilles) jerk]
•反射活动协调[coordination of reflex action (activity)]
•反射亢进(减弱,消失)[hyperreflexia (hyporeflexia, areflexia)]
•亢进的[hypractive (increased, exaggerated)]
•减弱的[hypoactive (decreased, diminished)]
•消失的[absent (disappeared)]
•可疑的[questionable (equivocal)]
•跟(髌,趾,腕)阵挛[ankle (patella, toe, wrist) clonus]
•巴彬斯基(克尼格,奥本海姻,霍夫曼)征[Babinski (Kernig, Oppenheim,
Hoffman) sign]
•拉塞格(布鲁金,戈登,查多克,岗达)征[Lasegue (Brudzinski, Gordon,
Chaddock, Bonoda) sign]
•眼-心(竖毛)反射[oculo-cardiac (pilomotor) reflex]
•皮肤划痕征[dermographism]
•脑膜刺激征[sign of meningeal irritation]
•颈强直[stiff-neck]
•阳性(阴性)[postive (negative)]
•未引出[be not found (discovered, elicited)]
•失语(声)[aphasia (aphony)]
•言语缓慢(不清)[bradylalia (barylalia)]
•口吃(声嘶)[stuttering (hoarseness)]
•外展(内收)[abduction (adduction)]
•脊柱后(前,侧,前侧,后侧)凸[kyphosis (lordosis, scoliosis,
lordoscoliosis, scoliokyphosis)]
•屈曲(前曲,背曲,腹侧屈曲)[flexion (anteflexion, dorsiflexion,
ventriflexion)]
•旋转(旋前,旋后)[rotation (pronation, supination)]
•伸直(前弯,后弯,侧弯)[extension (forward bending, backward bending
, lateral bending)]
•膝内(外)翻[genua varum (valgum)]
•髋内(外)翻[coxa vara (valga)]
•足内(外)翻[pes varus (valgus)]
•X(O)形腿[deformed X(O)-shaped leg]
•驼背[humpback (kyphosis, rachiocyphosis)]
•多(并)指[polydactylia (syndactyly)]
•关节僵硬[ankylosis (stiff-joint)]
•骨性强直[bony ankylosis]
•爪(扇)形手[claw (sector) hand]
•肢端肥大[acromegaly]
•杵状指[clubbing (clubbed finger)]
•跛行[limping]
•平足[flat foot (pes planus)]
•静脉曲张[varicose vein]
•静脉(蜂窝织)炎[phlebitis (cellulitis)]
•活动受限[limitation of motion]
•干(湿)性坏疽[dry (moist) gangrene]
•垂腕[wrist drop]
•梭形关节[fusiform articulus]
•浮髌现象[floating patella phenomenon]
•橡皮肿[elephantedema]
•肌萎缩[muscle atrophy]
•瘘管形成[sinus tract formation]
•蹼指(趾)[palmature and webbed toe]
•关节挛缩[contracture of joint]
•凹陷(非凹陷)性水肿[pitting (non-pitting) edema]
•关节变形(融合)[joint deformity (fusion)]
•关节全(半)脱位[complete dislocation (subluxation of joint)]
•关节肿大(肿胀)[arthrocele (arthroncus)]
•关节活动障碍[articular dyskinesia]
































第十章 体检(泌尿生殖道与其他)[Physical examination(urology ,obstetrics
and the others)]

•包皮过长(包茎)[prepuce redundant (phimosis)]
•包皮水肿[preputial edema]
•包皮嵌顿[paraphimosis]
•阴茎糜烂(疤疹,损伤,折断,溃疡,血肿)[erosion (herpes, injury,
fracture, ulcer, hematoma) of penis]
•阴茎粗大(特小,缺如)[coarseness (hypersmall, absence) of penis]
•阴茎发育不全[agenesis of penis]
•阴茎软下疳(菜花样肿块)[chancroid (cauliflower like mass) of penis]
•阴茎异常勃起[styma]
•阴囊湿疹(水肿,血肿,肿大,橡皮肿,溃疡)[eczema (edema, hematoma,
swelling, elephantiasis, ulcer) of scrotum]
•阴囊疝[scrotal hernia]
•腹股沟斜疝[indirect inguinal hernia]
•阴囊空虚(静脉曲张,肿块)[scrotal empty(varices, mass)]
•睾丸不发育(发育不全)[agenesis (dysgenesis) of testis]
•睾丸挫伤(损伤)[contusion (injury) of testis]
•睾丸畸形[teratism of testis]
•睾丸萎缩(缺如,肿大)[atrophy (absence, swelling) of testis]
•睾丸过小[microtestis]
•睾丸未降[undescended testicle]
•隐睾[cryptorchid]
•睾丸异位[parorchidium]
•睾丸扭转[torsion of testis]
•睾丸血肿[hematoma of testis]
•睾丸鞘膜积液[hydrocele]
•腹股沟的[inguinal]
•尿道口[orifice of urethra]
•尿道下裂 [hypospadius]
•尿道出血[urethremorrhage]
•尿道脓性分泌物[purulent secretion of urethra]
•索状结构[cord structure]
•精索静脉曲张[varicocele]
•透光试验[transillumination test]
•双(三)合诊[bimanual (trimanual) examination]
•阴道指诊[vaginal touch]
•外阴白斑干燥(橡皮肿,囊肿)[vulval leukoplakia(xerosis, elephantiasis,
cyst)]
•外阴溃疡(下疳,创伤,过度角化,瘙痒,湿疹,血肿)[ulcer(chancre,
trauma, hyperkeratosis, pruritus, eczema, hematoma ) of vulva]
•外阴会阴破裂[vulvoperineal rupture]
•幼稚型[infantile typer]
•已婚外阴[marital outlet]
•处女膜完整[intact hymen]
•恶露[lochia]
•白带[leucorrhea]
•水样(血性,脓性)阴道分泌物[watery (bloody, purulent) vaginal
discharge]
•宫颈涂片(活检)[cervical smear (biopsy)]
•宫颈触痛[cervical tenderness]
•子宫后位(侧位,下垂)[retroposition (latero-location, ptosis) of
uterus]
•子宫发育不良[hypoplasia of uterus]
•未产(多产)式子宫(子宫颈)[nulliparous (multipara) uterus (cervix)]
•宫颈糜烂[erosion of cervix]
•宫颈刮片[cervical scraping smear]
•宫颈肥大(白斑,裂伤,难产)[cervical hypertrophy (leukoplakia,
laceration, dystocia)]
•宫颈扩张[dilatation of cervix]
•宫颈息肉[cervical polyp]
•宫颈视诊[cervical inspection]
•前(后)倾位[in anteversion (retroversion) position]
•前(后)屈[anteflexion (retroflexion)]
•萎缩(肥厚)[atrophy (hypertrophy)]
•处女膜闭锁[atresia of hymen(imperforate hymen)]
•处女膜裂伤[hymenal laceration]
•处女膜破裂[repture of hymen]
• 阴道狭窄(血肿、闭锁,囊肿,缺失)[stenosis (hematoma, atresia, cyst
, absence) of vagina]
•阴道疤痕(裂伤、损伤、肿瘤)[vaginal scar (laceration, injury, tumor)]
•阴道出血[colporrhagia (vaginal bleeding)]
•阴道干燥(积血,破裂)[colpoxerosis(hematocolpos, colporrhexis)]
•阴道尖锐湿疣[condyloma acuminata of vagina]
•阴道镜检查[colposcopy]
•阴道疝(水肿,脱垂)[colpocele (colpedema, vaginocele)]
•阴道壁膨出[vaginal wall protruding]
•阴道积液[vaginal dropsy]
•第一(二)性征[primary (secondary) sex characteristies]
•阴蒂出血(肥大)[clitorrhagia (clitoridauxe)]
•巴氏(前庭大)腺增大[Bartholins gland enlargement]
•产前检查[antenatal care]
•骨盆测量[pelvimetry]
•出口横径[transverse outlet diameter]
•骨盆入(出)口狭窄[contracted pelvic inlet (outlet)]
•骨盆畸形(骨折,损伤)[deformity (fracture, injury) of pelvis]
•髂棘间径[IS (interspinous diameter)]
•髂嵴间径[IC (intercristal diameter)]
•粗隆间径[IT (intertrochanteric diameter)]
•骶耻外径[EC (external conjugate)]
•骶耻内径[DC (diagonal conjugate)]
•坐骨结节间径[ischial intertuberal diameter]
•头盆不相称[CPD(cephalopelvic disproportion)]
•胎心音(率,律)[fetal heart sound (rate, rhythm)]
•胎位[fetal position]
•左(右)枕前位[left (right) occipito-anterior (LOA/ROA)]
•左(右)枕横位[left (rihgt) occiput transverse (LOT/ROT)]
•左(右)枕后位[left (rihgt) occiput posterior (LOP/ROP)]
•左骶(颏,肩)前位[left sacrum (mental, acromion) anterior (LSA/LMA/
LAA)]
•宫底[fundus]
•在脐与耻骨联合之间[between the symphysis pubis and the umbilicus]
•脐上[above the umbilicus]
•剑突下[below the xiphoid process]
•如妊娠6个月大小[be enlarged as a 6-mouth gestation]
•胎先露[fetal presentation]
•横产位[acromio-iliac presentation]
•头(面,足,膝,肩,臀,臂)先露[head (face, foot ,knee, shoulder,
breech, arm, funis) presentation]
•脐带异常[abnormality of umbilical cord]
•脐带过长(短)[long (short) cord]
•脐带缠绕(绕颈)[cord entanglement (cord aound neck)]
•脐带水肿(打结,扭转,胱垂,缠绕)[edema (knot, torsion, prolapse,
winding) of umbilical cord]
•前置胎盘[placenta previa]
•胎盘早期剥离[premature separation of placenta (placental abruption)]
•胎盘部分残留[placenta remnants]
•胎盘滞留[retention of placenta]
•胎盘粘连[placenta adherence]
•胎盘嵌顿[incarcerated placenta]
•胎头入盆[engagement of head]
•胎动[fetal movement]
•胎粪(毛、膜)[meconium (down, fetal membrane)]
•胎膜早破[premature rupture of fetal membrane]
•宫缩(乏力,无力)[uterine contraction (uterine inertia, uterine
atony)]
•宫缩不良[inefficient uterine action]
•过期妊娠[prolonged pregnancy (graviditas)]
•分娩[delivery (labor, childbirth, parturition)]
•见红[bloody show]
•羊水过多(过少)[hydramnios (oligoamnios)]
•死产(宫内死亡)[stillbirth (fetal death)]
•双胞胎[twins]
•宫外孕[ectopic pregnancy]
•产道异常(损伤,裂伤)[abnormality (injury, laceration) of birth
canal]
•产后出血[postpartum hemorrhage]

•窥阴器[speculum]
•穹窿[vault (fornix)]
•肛瘘[anal fistula]
•肛裂[anal fissure]
•肛门脓肿(湿疹,出血)[abscess (eczema, hemorrhage) of anus]
•肛周脓肿(感染,瘙痒)[perianal abscess (infection, pruritus)]
•肛门反射[anal reflex]
•肛门缺如[anal agenesis (anus absence)]
•肛门闭锁[imperforate anus]
•脱肛[proctoptosis]
•直肠内触痛[rectum tenderness]
•肛门和直肠内波动感[wave sense in anus and rectum]
•直肠指检[digital examination of the rectum]
•直肠闭锁[rectal atresia]
•直肠(乙状结肠)镜[proctoscopy (sigmoidoscopy)]
•直肠(多发性)息肉[(multiple) polypus recti (proctopolypus)]
•直肠后间隙脓肿[retrorectal abscess]
•直肠瘘(破裂)[rectal fistula (rupture)]
•直肠膨出[rectocele]
•直肠狭窄[rectostenosis]
•直肠阴道隔(瘘)[rectovaginal septum (fistula)]
•内(外,混合)痔[internal (external, mixed) hemorrhoids]
•括约肌张力正常[normal sphincter tone]
•肛管[anal canal]
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第2楼

2008-12-20 05:36:59

 
发表于: 2008-12-20 05:36:59 [引用]
因为考试是分2个类型题目,
一种是低水平的,不需要分析的题目,
就是只要你知道这个知识点就不会错的题目(这个是抓分的,不能错)
另一种是要分析的,
哪个优先,哪个最重要,这类题目出的越多,答对越多
通过的可能性就大
我没有遇到计算,一题也没有,
所以计算题不能判断为难题,
多选题和其他题目一样,难度不高,
一个一个选,
但是错一个,整题目都错,
把自己的强弱分析一下,
按照8个部分来算,
我的做法也是按难度层次准备,
要背要记的东西老实去准备,
技巧的东西,告诉自己不要钻牛角尖,
虽然不是每题都有技巧,但是绝对适用于大部分的情况
还有就是之前研究过这个CAT考试的数学理论,
前15题是不算分的,我知道有的人会说,护士局说你并不知道是哪题,
对的,这是官方的说法,具体如果你有学数学的朋友,问一下就明白了,
我的理解是,15题不算分,但是也是尤其重要,因为它决定了你最初的曲线的起点,
但是大家不用在最初的题目上花太多时间,不要左右摇摆不定,相信自己的第一感觉,
另外,同一道题目,或类似的题目会反复出现,不要随意改答案,
绝对不是你前一题错了,要坚持你觉得对的,计算题也是这个思路





这里都是视频
http://nursejessie.blogspot.com/

这个是药物的发音,
一个学药剂的热心的朋友给的
http://www.brunohill.com/forums/showthread.php4?t=5711

这个是中文复习材料下载
http://www.brunohill.com/forums/showthread.php4?t=5711

解剖
http://www.anatomypix.com/human-anatomy-pictures.html

练习
http://198.146.4.5/nclexrn3500/mainMenu.do;jsessionid=9EEA89D3AE0F3A78D3C837E6A8B102F2
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